Minami-rinkan, Japan
Minami-rinkan, Japan

Sendai University is a private university in Shibata, Miyagi, Japan, established in 1967. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1879. It is the only university specializing in physical education in northern Japan. Wikipedia.

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Miyanishi T.,Sendai University | Endo S.,Sendai University | Nagahara R.,National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2017

Base stealing is an important tactic for increasing the chance of scoring in baseball. This study aimed to compare the crossover step (CS) and jab step (JS) starts for base stealing start performance and to clarify the differences between CS and JS starts in terms of three-dimensional lower extremity joint kinetics. Twelve male baseball players performed CS and JS starts, during which their motion and the force they applied to the ground were simultaneously recorded using a motion-capture system and two force platforms. The results showed that the normalised average forward external power, the average forward–backward force exerted by the left leg, and the forward velocities of the whole body centre of gravity generated by both legs and the left leg were significantly higher for the JS start than for the CS start. Moreover, the positive work done by hip extension during the left leg push-off was two-times greater for the JS start than the CS start. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the jab step start may be the better technique for a base stealing start and that greater positive work produced by left hip extension is probably responsible for producing its larger forward ground reaction force. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Takeuchi H.,Tohoku University | Sekiguchi A.,Tohoku University | Taki Y.,Tohoku University | Yokoyama S.,Tohoku University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Individual capacity of workingmemoryis associated with the integrity of white matter in the frontoparietal regions. It isunknown to what extent the integrity of white matter underlying the working memory system is plastic. Using voxel-based analysis (VBA) of fractional anisotropy (FA) measures of fiber tracts, we investigated the effect of workingmemorytraining on structural connectivity in an interventional study. The amount of working memory training correlated with increased FA in the white matter regions adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior part of the body of the corpus callosum after training. These results showed training-induced plasticity in regions that are thought to be critical in working memory. As changes in myelination lead to FA changes in diffusion tensor imaging, a possible mechanism for the observed FA change is increased myelination after training. Observed structural changes may underlie previously reported improvement of working memory capacity, improvement of other cognitive functions, and altered functional activity following working memory training. Copyright © 2010 the authors.

Yajima H.,Sendai University | Yajima H.,Tohoku University | Khochfar S.,University of Edinburgh
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2017

We here derive upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III (POPIII) dominated proto-galaxies based on the collapse of primordial gas under the effect of angular momentum loss via Lya radiation drag and the gas accretion on to a galactic centre. Our model predicts that POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ~ 7 are hosted by haloes with Mh ~ 1.5 x 108-1.1 x 109M M⊙ that they have Lya luminosities of LLya ~ 3.0 x 1042-2.1 x 1043 ergs-1, stellar mass of Mstar ~ 0.8 x 105-2.5 x 106 M⊙ and outflowing gas with velocities Vout ~ 40 km s-1 due to Lya radiation pressure. We show that the POPIII galaxy candidate CR7 violates the derived limits on stellar mass and Lyα luminosity and thus is unlikely to be a POPIII galaxy. POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ~ 7haveHen line emission that is ~ 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of Lya, theyhavehighLya equivalent width of ~300 A and should be found close to bright star-forming galaxies. The Hen 1640 A line is in comfortable reach of next generation telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) or Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). © 2016 The Authors.

Tsuchiya Y.,Tohoku Women's College | Kawamata K.,Sendai University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2017

Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Watanabe Y.,Sendai University | Wakayoshi K.,Osaka University of Economics | Nomura T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

This study aims to investigate the effect of changes in buoyancy when a swimmer respires in a horizontal posture. We attempted to evaluate the levelness of swimmers' streamline posture by simultaneously measuring the lung capacity and buoyancy under water. The buoyancy was measured based on the changes in the vertical loads of the upper and lower limbs on the subjects' streamline posture under water. The horizontal x-axis as lung ventilation and the vertical y-axis as buoyancy forms a linear equation y = ax + b. The relation between hand (upper-limb) buoyancy and lung ventilation is defined as y = a1x + b1 and that between foot (lower-limb) buoyancy and lung ventilation as y = a2x + b2. Horizontal levelness was calculated as a ratio by dividing a2 by a1 using the inclination (a) values from these formulas for an underwater streamline posture. We defined this ratio as the breathing-balance (BB) ratio. Although the performance levels in the present study did not show any difference in the absolute quantity of air that humans can inhale in a streamline posture, the BB ratio was higher in a statistically significant manner in junior swimmers competing at international levels compared with the other groups of subjects (P < 0.001). This statistical difference in horizontal levelness, despite the absence of a noticeable difference in the absolute quantity of inhaled air, may be attributable to the way in which each person inhales and exhales air. Top-level junior swimmers that exhibited a high BB ratio might have inhaled in a way that would counteract the sinking of the lower limbs, for example, through abdominal respiration. When exhaling, on the other hand, they might have let out air gradually to mitigate the acceleration force involved in submerging the lower limbs. © 2017 Watanabe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Tomata Y.,Sendai University | Kakizaki M.,Sendai University | Suzuki Y.,Sendai Shirayuri Women's College | Tsuji I.,Sendai University
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2014

Objective: To examine the hypothesis that disability prevalence has increased to a greater degree in the areas severely affected by the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 than in other areas. Methods: Longitudinal analysis using public statistics data from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. The analysis included 1549 municipalities covered by the Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI) system. 'Disaster areas' were defined as three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima). The outcome measure was the number of aged people (≥65 years) with LTCI disability certification. Rates of change in disability prevalence from February 2011 to February 2012 were used as the primary outcome variable, and were compared by analysis of covariance between 'Coastal disaster areas', 'Inland disaster areas' and 'Non-disaster areas'. Results: Regarding disability prevalence at all levels, the mean value of the increase rate in Coastal disaster areas (7.1%) was higher than in Inland disaster areas (3.7%) and Non-disaster areas (2.8%) (p<0.001). Conclusions: The areas that were severely affected by the earthquake and tsunami had a significantly higher increase in disability prevalence during the 1 year after the earthquake disaster than other areas.

Sanchez J.M.,University of Texas at Austin | Mohri T.,Sendai University
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2016

In this paper we obtain approximate solutions to the Cluster Variation free energy by carrying out a cluster expansion of the probabilities appearing in the free energy functional in terms of concentration-dependent basis functions, and by truncating the expansion at different cluster levels prior to minimization. We show that a significant improvement over the Bragg-Williams approximation can be achieved by truncating the expansion of the cluster probabilities at relatively small clusters, thus dramatically reducing the number of equations that need to be solved in order to minimize the free energy. Furthermore, the free energy functional in the Cluster Variation Method offers a well-controlled case study to infer the effects of truncating the expansion of the energy of alloy formation in the commonly used Cluster Expansion method, versus the effects of truncating the expansion when using a concentration-dependent basis. Examples of the approach are given for simple Ising models for fcc- and bcc-based prototype alloy systems. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Li H.,Sendai University | Yin S.,Sendai University | Sato T.,Sendai University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

The systematic experiments of photocatalytic degradation of NO gas were carried out by using novel composites containing TiO2-xNy loaded on a long afterglow phosphor, CaAl2O4:(Eu,Nd). The composites were prepared in a sequence of procedures, which involved reactions of TiCl3 and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) mixed solution at 190°C for 2h to precipitate nano-size TiO2-xNy particles, followed by mixing the TiO2-xNy with a micro-size CaAl2O4:(Eu,Nd) particles by a soft planetary ball milling to yield CaAl2O4:(Eu,Nd)/TiO2-xNy composites. Photocatalytic degradation of NO was monitored both under UV light irradiation and in the dark after turning off the light. The composite displayed excellent photocatalytic activity under UV-light irradiation as well as persistent activity after turning off light. A promising strategy involves coupling of visible light responsive photocatalyst with long afterglow phosphor was established. It is a new concept for the photocatalyst synthesis implying a possibility of a novel persistent active photocatalytic system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Guo C.,Sendai University | Yin S.,Sendai University | Zhang P.,Sendai University | Yan M.,Sendai University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nanosize homogenous rod-like tungsten bronze CsxWO3 with excellent NIR shielding ability was successfully synthesized by a novel and facile water controlled-release solvothermal process (WCRSP). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Aso Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Hattori D.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Yu Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Johnston R.M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 7 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2014

We identified the neurons comprising the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), an associative center in invertebrate brains, and provide a comprehensive map describing their potential connections. Each of the 21 MB output neuron (MBON) types elaborates segregated dendritic arbors along the parallel axons of ∼2000 Kenyon cells, forming 15 compartments that collectively tile the MB lobes. MBON axons project to five discrete neuropils outside of the MB and three MBON types form a feedforward network in the lobes. Each of the 20 dopaminergic neuron (DAN) types projects axons to one, or at most two, of the MBON compartments. Convergence of DAN axons on compartmentalized Kenyon cell-MBON synapses creates a highly ordered unit that can support learning to impose valence on sensory representations. The elucidation of the complement of neurons of the MB provides a comprehensive anatomical substrate from which one can infer a functional logic of associative olfactory learning and memory.

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