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Satsumasendai, Japan

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Takeuchi H.,Tottori University | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kitano H.,Tottori University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2011

The fetal anatomy of the human epiglottis has not yet been fully described. We investigated the histology (paraffin-embedding) of 18 mid-term fetuses at 7-25 weeks of gestation (three fetuses each at 7, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 weeks). A mesenchymal condensation of the epiglottic cartilage appears posterior and somewhat superior to the hyoid body at 9 weeks, but at 12 and 15 weeks, the root or inferior part descends to the level of the thyroid cartilage. The covering epithelium stains much darker with hematoxylin than other pharyngeal epithelia. After 20 weeks, the epiglottis again protrudes superiorly beyond the hyoid body. In contrast to other laryngeal cartilage anlagen, the mesenchymal condensation of the epiglottis begins to express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at 15 weeks. At the same stage, mucosal glands begin invading into the epiglottic mesenchyme. The developing cartilage becomes penetrated and fragmented by abundant mucosal glands up until 25 weeks. The thyro-epiglottic ligament seems to develop from the GFAP-positive mesenchymal condensation, whereas the hyo-epiglottic ligament is likely to originate from the fasciae of lingual muscles. Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction is strongly suggested in the development of the epiglottic cartilage and concomitant glands. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Hosaka F.,Iwamizawa Municipal Hospital | Hosaka F.,Sapporo Medical University | Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Anatomical Science International | Year: 2014

The autonomic nerve supply of skeletal muscle has become a focus of interest because it is closely related to the adaptation of energy metabolism with aging. We have performed an immunohistochemistry study on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) using specimens obtained from ten selected elderly cadavers (mean age 83.3 years) in which we examined muscle-innervating nerves (abbreviated "muscle-nerves" hereafter) of ten striated muscles (soleus, infraspinatus, extra-ocular inferior rectus, lateral rectus, superior obliquus, temporalis, orbicularis oculi, posterior cricoarytenoideus, trapezius and genioglossus) and, as a positive control, the submandibular ganglion. We found that the extra-ocular muscles received no or very few TH-positive nerve fibers. Muscle-nerves to the other head and neck muscles contained a few or several TH-positive fibers per section, but their density (proportional area of TH-positive fibers per nerve cross-section) was one-half to one-third of that in nerves to the soleus or infraspinatus. We did not find nNOS-positive fibers in any of these muscle-nerves. In the head and neck muscles, with the exception of those of the tongue, there appeared to be very few TH-positive nerve fibers along the feeding artery. Consequently, the head and neck muscles seemed to receive much fewer sympathetic nerves than limb muscles. There was no evidence that nNOS-positive nerves contributed to vasodilation of feeding arteries in striated muscles. This site-dependent difference in sympathetic innervation would reflect its commitment to muscle activity. However, we did not find any rules determining the density of nerves according to muscle fiber type and the mode of muscle activity. © 2013 Japanese Association of Anatomists.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Hyun Kim J.,Chonbuk National University | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2011

The digastricus and omohyoideus muscles are known to carry two muscle bellies connected by an intermediate tendon. However, according to our histological observations of 22 fetuses (7-20 weeks of gestation), the mode of formation of the intermediate tendon was critically different between these two muscles. At 7-9 weeks, the posterior belly of the digastricus carried a definite intramuscular tendon continuous with a long descending tendon. The stylohyoideus, external carotid artery and hypoglossal nerve appeared to impede attachment of the tendon to the Reichert or hyoid cartilage. The digastricus anterior belly did not contain any intramuscular tendon, but desmin-positive muscle fibers consistently surrounded a bulb-like mesenchymal condensation at the caudal free end of the digastricus posterior tendon. Thus, most parts of the digastricus tendon were apparently derived from the posterior belly. In contrast, the omohyoideus always possessed a single long muscle belly until 15 weeks. The intermediate tendon first appeared at 15 weeks as a short plate-like connective structure along the medial margin of the muscle. Vimentin immunoreactivity suggested the presence of mechanical stress along the plate-like tissue, possibly due to bending of the long muscle. Muscle fibers were replaced by collagen fibers to form an intermediate tendon by 20 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2011

The trochlea for the superior oblique muscle as well as the hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle is well known as a fibrocartilage-associated, hard tissue pulley that changes the direction of the tendon. However, details of the fetal development of these structures remain obscure. We carried out a histological study of hematoxylin-eosin-stained preparations from 20 human fetuses (7-15 weeks of gestation) and clarified a common rule for the formation of these pulleys: changing in the location of a structure for the muscle insertion. At the early stage, the muscle and insertion exhibit an almost straight course alongside the primitive pulley, but because the structure for insertion later moves away from a straight line along which the muscle acts, the tendon begins to turn around the cartilage by 12 weeks. The posterior shift of the soft palate is clearly evident, but rotation of the sclera or eyeball is difficult to identify in sections. To some degree, the trochlea may originate from a common anlage with the sclera. We hypothesize that, from the evolutionary point of view, the hamulus or trochlea do not form for the pulley itself but as a structure independent of the related muscle function. The fetal topographical anatomy around the tensor veli palatini, as well as its relationship to the tensor tympani, is also described. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Ho Cho K.,Wonkwang University | Abe H.,Akita University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2013

The fascial configuration in the suprahyoid parapharyngeal space was evaluated using semiserial sagittal sections of 15 late-stage human fetal heads. The prevertebral fascia covered the longus colli, longus capitis, and rectus capitis lateralis muscles, but was most evident along the longus colli muscle. The carotid sheath and its extension were located around the internal and external carotid arteries and the lower cranial nerves. The superior cervical ganglion was also inside the sheath. Even near full term, the fetal suprahyoid neck was short, with the jugular foramen and hypoglossal canal located at the posterolateral side of the oropharynx. Thus, the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves ran across the upper part of the carotid sheath. Fasciae of the stylopharyngeus, styloglossus, and stylohyoideus muscles were attached to and joined the anterosuperior aspect of the carotid sheath. All these neurovascular and muscle sheaths are communicated with the visceral fascia covering the pharynx at multiple sites, and, together, they formed a mesentery-like bundle. This communication bundle was made narrow by the anteriorly protruding longus capitis muscle. The mesentery-like bundle was covered by the posterior marginal fascia of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. The external carotid artery ran on the lateral and posterior sides of the posterior marginal fascia. Consequently, the typical carotid sheath configuration was modified by muscle sheaths from the styloid process, communicated with the visceral fascia and, anteriorly, constituted the posterior margin of the prestyloid space. Clin. Anat. 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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