Sendai-shi, Japan
Sendai-shi, Japan

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Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Shibata S.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Ohtsuka A.,Okayama University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2012

Adaptation to constant vibration (acoustic oscillation) is likely to confer a specific morphology at the bone-tendon and bone-ligament interfaces at the ear ossicles, which therefore represent an exciting target of enthesis research. We histologically examined (i) the bone attachments of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and (ii) the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint obtained from seven elderly donated cadavers. Notably, both aldehyde-fuchsin and elastic-Masson staining demonstrated that the major fibrous component of the entheses was not collagen fibers but mature elastic fibers. The positive controls for elastic fiber staining were the arterial wall elastic laminae included in the temporal bone materials. The elastic fibers were inserted deeply into the type II collagen-poor fibrocartilage covering the ear ossicles. The muscle tendons were composed of an outer thin layer of collagen fibers and an inner thick core of elastic fibers near the malleus or stapes. In the unique elastic fiber-mediated entheses, hyaluronan, versican and fibronectin were expressed strongly along the elastic fibers. The hyaluronan seemed to act as a friction-reducing lubricant for the elastic fibers. Aggrecan was labeled strongly in a disk- or plica-like fibrous mass on the inner side of the elastic fiber-rich ligament, possibly due to compression stress from the ligament. Tenascin-c was not evident in the entheses. The elastic fiber-mediated entheses appeared resistant to tissue destruction in an environment exposed to constant vibration. The morphology was unlikely to be the result of age-related degeneration. © 2012 Anatomical Society.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Takeuchi H.,Tottori University | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kitano H.,Tottori University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2011

The fetal anatomy of the human epiglottis has not yet been fully described. We investigated the histology (paraffin-embedding) of 18 mid-term fetuses at 7-25 weeks of gestation (three fetuses each at 7, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 weeks). A mesenchymal condensation of the epiglottic cartilage appears posterior and somewhat superior to the hyoid body at 9 weeks, but at 12 and 15 weeks, the root or inferior part descends to the level of the thyroid cartilage. The covering epithelium stains much darker with hematoxylin than other pharyngeal epithelia. After 20 weeks, the epiglottis again protrudes superiorly beyond the hyoid body. In contrast to other laryngeal cartilage anlagen, the mesenchymal condensation of the epiglottis begins to express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at 15 weeks. At the same stage, mucosal glands begin invading into the epiglottic mesenchyme. The developing cartilage becomes penetrated and fragmented by abundant mucosal glands up until 25 weeks. The thyro-epiglottic ligament seems to develop from the GFAP-positive mesenchymal condensation, whereas the hyo-epiglottic ligament is likely to originate from the fasciae of lingual muscles. Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction is strongly suggested in the development of the epiglottic cartilage and concomitant glands. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Cho K.H.,Wonkwang University | Lee H.S.,Wonkwang University | Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2013

The midfacial deep fatty tissue has been divided into the buccal and parapharyngeal fat pads although the former carries several extensions in adults. Using histological sections of 15 large human fetuses, we demonstrated that the parapharyngeal fat pad corresponds to the major content of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space or, simply, the prestyloid fat. The buccal and prestyloid fatty tissues were separated by the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. In these tissues, superficial parts, corresponding to the lower body and the masseteric extension of the adult buccal fat pad, were well encapsulated and showed the most advanced stage of histogenesis. As the sphenoid bone was not fully developed even in the largest specimens, the temporal, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine fossae joined to provide a large space for a single, large upper extension of the buccal fat pad. In the intermediate part of the extension course, the larger specimens carried a narrower part between the maxilla and the temporalis muscle. The single, upper extension appeared to divide into several extensions, as seen in adults. The periocular fat was clearly separated from the upper extension of the buccal fat pad by the sheet-like orbitalis muscle. A communication between the prestyloid fat and the buccal fat pad likely occurred through a potential space along the lingual nerve immediately superior to the deep part of the submandibular gland. At this site, therefore, the prestyloid fat may be injured or infected when the buccal fat pad is treated surgically. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Hyun Kim J.,Chonbuk National University | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2011

The digastricus and omohyoideus muscles are known to carry two muscle bellies connected by an intermediate tendon. However, according to our histological observations of 22 fetuses (7-20 weeks of gestation), the mode of formation of the intermediate tendon was critically different between these two muscles. At 7-9 weeks, the posterior belly of the digastricus carried a definite intramuscular tendon continuous with a long descending tendon. The stylohyoideus, external carotid artery and hypoglossal nerve appeared to impede attachment of the tendon to the Reichert or hyoid cartilage. The digastricus anterior belly did not contain any intramuscular tendon, but desmin-positive muscle fibers consistently surrounded a bulb-like mesenchymal condensation at the caudal free end of the digastricus posterior tendon. Thus, most parts of the digastricus tendon were apparently derived from the posterior belly. In contrast, the omohyoideus always possessed a single long muscle belly until 15 weeks. The intermediate tendon first appeared at 15 weeks as a short plate-like connective structure along the medial margin of the muscle. Vimentin immunoreactivity suggested the presence of mechanical stress along the plate-like tissue, possibly due to bending of the long muscle. Muscle fibers were replaced by collagen fibers to form an intermediate tendon by 20 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kiyokawa H.,Tohoku University | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University
Acta Oto-Laryngologica | Year: 2011

Conclusion. CD34-positive mesenchymal tissues are likely to play a critical role in the pattern formation of laryngeal and pharyngeal walls. In the ear, nose, and throat regions, a future clinical relevance may be found in their use for muscle repair and regeneration. Objectives. CD34 is a well-known marker of progenitor cells of blood vessels and stromal tissues. Thus, CD34-positive cells have recently been used clinically in the field of vascular and orthopedic biotechnology because of their capacity to assist regeneration of injured tissues. However, to our knowledge, the in situ distribution of CD34-positive cells has not yet been described in the human fetus, with the exception of a few organs. The purpose of this study was to describe the location of CD34-positive cells in the head and neck regions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CD34 was carried out using seven human fetuses (12 and 15 weeks of gestation). Results: CD34-positive structures showed a vessel-like appearance and were regularly arrayed along the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal mucosal epithelia, whereas in the laryngeal and pharyngeal striated muscles they were distributed diffusely as fibrous tissues such as the fascia and perimysium. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2011

The trochlea for the superior oblique muscle as well as the hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle is well known as a fibrocartilage-associated, hard tissue pulley that changes the direction of the tendon. However, details of the fetal development of these structures remain obscure. We carried out a histological study of hematoxylin-eosin-stained preparations from 20 human fetuses (7-15 weeks of gestation) and clarified a common rule for the formation of these pulleys: changing in the location of a structure for the muscle insertion. At the early stage, the muscle and insertion exhibit an almost straight course alongside the primitive pulley, but because the structure for insertion later moves away from a straight line along which the muscle acts, the tendon begins to turn around the cartilage by 12 weeks. The posterior shift of the soft palate is clearly evident, but rotation of the sclera or eyeball is difficult to identify in sections. To some degree, the trochlea may originate from a common anlage with the sclera. We hypothesize that, from the evolutionary point of view, the hamulus or trochlea do not form for the pulley itself but as a structure independent of the related muscle function. The fetal topographical anatomy around the tensor veli palatini, as well as its relationship to the tensor tympani, is also described. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Yamamoto M.,Tokyo Dental College | Asakawa S.,Tokyo Dental College | Maki H.,Tokyo Dental College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2012

In adults, the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) is usually divided into the upper and lower heads, between which the buccal nerve passes. Using sagittal or horizontal sections of 14 fetuses and seven embryos (five specimens at approximately 20-25weeks; five at 14-16weeks; four at 8weeks; seven at 6-7weeks), we examined the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve. In large fetuses later than 15weeks, the upper head of the LPM was clearly discriminated from the lower head. However, the upper head was much smaller than the lower head in the smaller fetuses. Thus, in the latter, the upper head was better described as an 'anterior slip' extending from the lower head or the major muscle mass to the anterior side of the buccal nerve. The postero-anterior nerve course seemed to be determined by a branch to the temporalis muscle (i.e. the anterior deep temporal nerve). At 8weeks, the buccal nerve passed through the roof of the small, fan-like LPM. At 6-7weeks, the LPM anlage was embedded between the temporobuccal nerve trunk and the inferior alveolar nerve. Therefore, parts of the LPM were likely to 'leak' out of slits between the origins of the mandibular nerve branches at 7-8weeks, and seemed to grow in size during weeks 14-20 and extend anterosuperiorly along the infratemporal surface of the prominently developing greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Consequently, the topographical relationship between the LPM and the buccal nerve appeared to 'change' during fetal development due to delayed development of the upper head. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Ho Cho K.,Wonkwang University | Abe H.,Akita University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2013

The fascial configuration in the suprahyoid parapharyngeal space was evaluated using semiserial sagittal sections of 15 late-stage human fetal heads. The prevertebral fascia covered the longus colli, longus capitis, and rectus capitis lateralis muscles, but was most evident along the longus colli muscle. The carotid sheath and its extension were located around the internal and external carotid arteries and the lower cranial nerves. The superior cervical ganglion was also inside the sheath. Even near full term, the fetal suprahyoid neck was short, with the jugular foramen and hypoglossal canal located at the posterolateral side of the oropharynx. Thus, the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves ran across the upper part of the carotid sheath. Fasciae of the stylopharyngeus, styloglossus, and stylohyoideus muscles were attached to and joined the anterosuperior aspect of the carotid sheath. All these neurovascular and muscle sheaths are communicated with the visceral fascia covering the pharynx at multiple sites, and, together, they formed a mesentery-like bundle. This communication bundle was made narrow by the anteriorly protruding longus capitis muscle. The mesentery-like bundle was covered by the posterior marginal fascia of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. The external carotid artery ran on the lateral and posterior sides of the posterior marginal fascia. Consequently, the typical carotid sheath configuration was modified by muscle sheaths from the styloid process, communicated with the visceral fascia and, anteriorly, constituted the posterior margin of the prestyloid space. Clin. Anat. 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hosaka F.,Iwamizawa Municipal Hospital | Hosaka F.,Sapporo Medical University | Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Anatomical Science International | Year: 2014

The autonomic nerve supply of skeletal muscle has become a focus of interest because it is closely related to the adaptation of energy metabolism with aging. We have performed an immunohistochemistry study on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) using specimens obtained from ten selected elderly cadavers (mean age 83.3 years) in which we examined muscle-innervating nerves (abbreviated "muscle-nerves" hereafter) of ten striated muscles (soleus, infraspinatus, extra-ocular inferior rectus, lateral rectus, superior obliquus, temporalis, orbicularis oculi, posterior cricoarytenoideus, trapezius and genioglossus) and, as a positive control, the submandibular ganglion. We found that the extra-ocular muscles received no or very few TH-positive nerve fibers. Muscle-nerves to the other head and neck muscles contained a few or several TH-positive fibers per section, but their density (proportional area of TH-positive fibers per nerve cross-section) was one-half to one-third of that in nerves to the soleus or infraspinatus. We did not find nNOS-positive fibers in any of these muscle-nerves. In the head and neck muscles, with the exception of those of the tongue, there appeared to be very few TH-positive nerve fibers along the feeding artery. Consequently, the head and neck muscles seemed to receive much fewer sympathetic nerves than limb muscles. There was no evidence that nNOS-positive nerves contributed to vasodilation of feeding arteries in striated muscles. This site-dependent difference in sympathetic innervation would reflect its commitment to muscle activity. However, we did not find any rules determining the density of nerves according to muscle fiber type and the mode of muscle activity. © 2013 Japanese Association of Anatomists.

Honkura Y.,Tohoku University | Hidaka H.,Tohoku University | Ohta J.,Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital | Gorai S.,Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Auris Nasus Larynx | Year: 2014

Many previous reports have indicated that pulsatile tinnitus caused by an aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) should not be treated surgically because of the risk of infection or aneurysm formation. We herein describe a case of aberrant ICA treated by middle ear surgery for which we introduced a novel approach. An 84-year-old man was presented with a one-year history of tinnitus in his right ear. Otoscopic examination demonstrated a whitish mass in the antero-inferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane associated with rhythmic pulsation. Images obtained by CT, MRI and MRA revealed protrusion of the ICA into the tympanic cavity, making contact with the tympanic membrane. Surgery to separate the tympanic membrane from the ICA was performed in order to relieve the pulsatile tinnitus. After the operation, the patient's aural activity was preserved and the tinnitus did not recur within a follow-up period of one year. In the present case, delicate middle ear surgery was effective for relief of the tinnitus. When treating patients with aberrant IAC showing features similar to the present case, the surgical approach we have described is worth attempting. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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