Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen

Dresden, Germany

Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen

Dresden, Germany
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Packert M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Sun Y.-H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Severinghaus L.L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim Zoogeographic patterns in the Himalayas and their neighbouring Southeast Asian mountain ranges include elevational parapatry and ecological segregation, particularly among passerine bird species. We estimate timings of lineage splits among close relatives from the north Palaearctic, the Sino-Himalayan mountain forests and from adjacent Southeast Asia. We also compare phylogeographic affinities and timing of radiation among members of avian communities from different elevational belts. Location East Asia. Methods We reconstructed molecular phylogenies based on a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b) and multilocus data sets for seven passerine groups: Aegithalidae, Certhiidae (Certhia), Fringillidae (Pyrrhula), Paridae (Periparus), Phylloscopidae, Regulidae and Timaliidae (Garrulax sensu lato). Molecular dating was carried out using a Bayesian approach applying a relaxed clock in beast. Time estimates were inferred from three independent calibrations based on either a fixed mean substitution rate or fixed node ages. The biogeographic history of each group was reconstructed using a parsimony-based approach. Results Passerine radiation in Southeast Asia can be divided into roughly three major phases of separation events. We infer that an initial Miocene radiation within the Southeast Asian region included invasions of (sub)tropical faunal elements from the Indo-Burmese region to the Himalayan foothills and further successive invasions to Central Asia and Taiwan towards the early Pliocene. During two further Pliocene/Pleistocene phases, the subalpine mountain belt of the Sino-Himalayas was initially invaded by boreal species with clear phylogenetic affinities to the north Palaearctic taiga belt. Most terminal splits between boreal Himalayan/Chinese sister taxa were dated to the Pleistocene. Main conclusions Extant patterns of elevational parapatry and faunal transition in the Sino-Himalayas originated from successive invasions from different climatic regions. The initiation of Southeast Asian passerine diversification and colonization of the Himalayan foothills in the mid-Miocene coincides with the postulated onset of Asian monsoon climate and the resulting floral and faunal turnovers. Patterns of elevational parapatry were established by southward invasions of boreal avifaunal elements to the subalpine Sino-Himalayan forest belt that were strongly connected to climate cooling towards the end of the Pliocene. Current patterns of allopatry and parapatry in boreal species (groups) were shaped through Pleistocene forest fragmentation in East Asia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Packert M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg | Feigl A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Tietze D.T.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

We provide a molecular phylogeny for Old World swifts of genera Apus and Tachymarptis (tribe Apodini) based on a taxon-complete sampling at the species level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were based on two mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA) and three nuclear markers (introns of fibrinogen and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase plus anonymous marker 12884) while the myoglobin intron 2 did not show any intergeneric variation or phylogenetic signal among the target taxa at all. In contrast to previous hypotheses, the two genera Apus and Tachymarptis were shown as reciprocally monophyletic in all reconstructions. Apus was consistently divided into three major clades: (1) East Asian clade of A. pacificus and A. acuticauda, (2) African-Asian clade of A. caffer, A. batesi, A. horus, A. affinis and A. nipalensis, (3) African-Palearctic clade of eight currently accepted species among which sequences of A. apus and A. pallidus clustered in a terminal crown clade. Phylogenetic signal of all four nuclear markers was extremely shallow within and among species of tribe Apodini and even among genera, such that intra- and intergeneric relationships of Apus, Tachymarptis and Cypsiurus were poorly resolved by nuclear data alone. Four species, A. pacificus, A. barbatus, A. affinis and A. caffer were consistently found to be paraphyletic with respect to their closest relatives and possible taxonomic consequences are discussed without giving particular recommendations due to limitations of sampling. Incomplete mitochondrial lineage sorting with cytochrome- b haplotypes shared among species and across large geographic distances was observed in two species pairs: A. affinis/. A. nipalensis and A. apus/. A. pallidus. Mitochondrial introgression caused by extant or past gene flow was ruled out as an explanation for the low interspecific differentiation in these two cases because all nuclear markers appeared to be highly unsorted among Apus species, too. Apparently, the two extant species pairs originated from very recent dispersal and/or speciation events. The currently accepted superspecies classification within Apus was not supported by our results. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Linnert C.,Ruhr University Bochum | Engelke J.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Wilmsen M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Mutterlose J.,Ruhr University Bochum
Paleoceanography | Year: 2016

The latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian interval is well known as a period of intense climate cooling. This cooling caused a distinctive bipolar biogeographic distribution of calcareous nannofossil assemblages: High-latitude settings were dominated by newly evolving endemic taxa, former cosmopolitan species disappeared at the same time, and equatorial communities experienced an invasion of cool water taxa. The impact of this cooling on northern midlatitude assemblages is, however, less well known. In order to overcome this gap we studied the Kronsmoor section (northwest Germany). This section provides a continuous upper Campanian—lower Maastrichtian succession with moderately to well preserved nannofossils. Uppermost Campanian assemblages are dominated by Prediscosphaera cretacea; other common taxa include Prediscosphaera stoveri, Watznaueria barnesiae, and Micula staurophora. The lower Maastrichtian is characterized by lower numbers of P. cretacea and frequent Kamptnerius magnificus, Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis, and Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii. These changes reflect, in part, the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary cooling since some successful taxa (e.g., K. magnificus) are related to cool surface waters. Other shifts in the nannofossil communities were perhaps the result of a changing nutrient regime. Stronger latitudinal gradients may have increased wind velocities and thus the eolian input of ferruginous dust required by N-fixing bacteria. The enhanced high-latitude deep water formation probably changed the bottom water environment in disfavor of denitrificating organisms. A decline of chemical weathering and fluviatile transport may have reduced the amount of bioavailable phosphate. These processes led to an increased nitrate and a decreased phosphate content shifting the nutrient regime from nitrate toward phosphate limitation. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

The article presents the summary of information concerning the types of eleven species of the genus Doliops Waterh. and the types of two species of the genus Lamprobityle Heller, 1923 (stat. nov.) deposited in Senckenberg Natural History collections Dresden (Germany) (SMTD). New synonymy is proposed: the genus Stenodoliops Vives, 2009 is considered as a junior synonym of the genus Lamprobityle Heller, 1923. Two new species are described, one of which belongs to the genus Doliops Waterh, but the other to the genus Lamprobityle Heller, 1923. One species of the genus Doliops Waterh., D. magnifica (Heller, 1923), has been transferred to the genus Lamprobityle Heller, 1923. A Check-list of the genus Lamprobityle Heller is added. At present, the total number of Doliops-species is forty-four and Lamprobityle represented by seven species.

Schlagintweit F.,Lerchenauerstr. 167 | Rigaud S.,University of Geneva | Wilmsen M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen
Facies | Year: 2015

Rich and diverse trocholinid assemblages have been recorded from the lower to middle Cenomanian Altamira and Bielba formations of the Bascocantabrian Basin, northern Spain. They occur in bioclastic for-algal grainstones and near-reefal rudstones referred to platform margin environments. This material, partially impregnated by iron-rich solutions, is unusually well-preserved and offers the unique opportunity to carry out a detailed study of the last diversifed assemblages of the aragonitic foraminiferal order Involutinida. It notably allows (1) describing one new subfamily (Coscinoconinae n. subfam.), two new genera (Hensonipapillus n. gen. and Para -coscinoconus n. gen.), and five new species (Coscinoconus discoideus n. sp., Frentzenella pygmaea n. sp., Hensonipapillus cantabricus n. sp., H.altamirensis n. gen., n. sp., and Paracoscinoconus semiinvolutus n. sp.); (2) clarifying the relationship between the umbilical canal system and the laminar deposits in Late Jurassic–Cretaceous coscinoconins; (3) emending and providing new combinations for “Trocholina” lenticularis Henson, 1947 “T.” minima Henson, 1947 and “T.” burlini Gorbatchik, 1959 which have been repeatedly misidentifed in the literature; (4) discussing the epibenthic mode of life of trocholinids; and (5) proposing an explanation for their extinction at the Cenomanian–Turonian boundary. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Schlagintweit F.,Lerchenauerstr. 167 | Rigaud S.,University of Geneva | Wilmsen M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2015

The small benthic foraminifera Altamirella biscayana n. gen., n. sp. is described from the lower Cenomanian of the Bielba and Altamira formations (North Cantabrian Basin, Spain). Its trochospirally coiled test combines calcitic dark microgranular and fibro-hyaline layers, an arrangement reminiscent of that observed in Palaeozoic Tetrataxidae Galloway. As in Tetrataxis, these layers are built in successive phases and never form a double-layer sensu stricto. The significance of this distinctive wall structure for taxonomy, phylogeny, dispersal, survival and ecology is discussed. A similar wall organization is also observed in some trochospirally coiled Mesozoic forms such as Mohlerina Bucur, Senowbari-Daryan and Abate and might be inherent to epibenthic taxa developing elevated microhabitats. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

A recent German anti-Darwinist book publication cheekily challenges what its author, M. Beleites, denounces a today's reductionist biological approach - which in his sense cross-the-board includes all kind of academic teaching and research in the field of biology and above all genetic analyses. The author quotes an ornithological article by Otto Kleinschmidt from 1921 as a core argument against the theory of descent. That classical example of a species quartet of four Eurasian tit species of genus Poecile once failed at establishing a reliable phylogenetic hypothesis using two morphological traits: crown colour and beak shape. This essay points to basic errors in reasoning and crucial mistakes of interpretation of the original Kleinschmidt article in the light of current state of knowledge and multidisciplinary analyses on tits (Paridae). Main pitfalls of the anti-Darwinist perspective are i) insufficient number and a lack of phylogenetic information of traits analysed, ii) a priori exclusion of possible topologies, iii) incomplete taxon sampling for pairwise comparisons, iv) fatal ignorance of relevant literature and distorting citation of Kleinschmidt's original study. © DO-G, IfV, MPG 2015.

Packert M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Sun Y.-H.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

In this paper we provide a molecular phylogeny based on three mitochondrial and three nuclear markers for all long-tailed tit species of the genus Aegithalos including several doubtful subspecies (17 taxa) plus three close allies of SE Asian Leptopoecile and North American Psaltriparus. Genus Aegithalos is divided into three major clades, two of them showing only minor differentiation. Separation of two mitchondrial haploytpe clusters in the N Palearctic Long-tailed Tit, Ae. caudatus, was dated back to the Late Pleistocene, however, descendants from both lineages underwent a rapid post-Pleistocene range expansion and largely mixed over the entire distribution area. The Chinese populations of the glaucogularis subspecies group represent a slightly earlier Pleistocene split from the Ae. caudatus clade. Genetic differentiation among several doubtful SE Asian species taxa on the sister clade of the latter N Palearctic/Chinese clade matches the intraspecific differentiation within Ae. caudatus. Unexpectedly, cytochrome-b distances among Himalayan Ae. iouschistos (including the subspecies bonvaloti from China and sharpei from Myanmar) and the Chinese endemic Ae. fuliginosus range at approximately 0.5% and apparently all these extant populations separated only very recently during late Pleistocene times, too. W Himalayan Ae. niveogularis clearly appeared as the sister species of the latter taxon assemblage. Unlike the two latter major clades, Ae. concinnus shows strong intraspecific differentiation with cyt-b distances as high as 6% among two Himalayan populations of ssp. iredalei, ssp. manipurensis from Myanmar and a fourth lineage from SW and SC China including ssp. talifuensis and nominate concinnus. A sister-group relationship between all Ae. concinnus and Ae. leucogenys was strongly supported. N American bushtits of genus Psaltriparus represent the sister clade to Palearctic genus Aegithalos, including a clear split between the minimus and the plumbeus subspecies group which was again dated back to Pleistocene times. The two tit-warbler species of genus Leptopoecile are strongly differentiated from one another and represent an early split from the Aegithalidae tree. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schlagintweit F.,Lerchenauerstr. 167 | Wilmsen M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2014

The top parts of the Taft Formation of Central Iran in its type area southwest of Yazd (Central Iran) contain an orbitolinid assemblage consisting of Dictyoconus? pachymarginalis Schroeder, 1965, Mesorbitolina birmanica (Sahni, 1937), and Mesorbitolina ex gr. texana (Roemer, 1849), assigned to the late Gargasian (mid-late Aptian). M.birmanica belongs to a group of mesorbitolinids (e.g., M.pervia, M.ovalis) exhibiting a rather large and complex embryo with a plano-convex protoconch. It has been largely overlooked in the literature and its integration into the early Aptian (Bedoulian) to early Cenomanian Mesorbitolina lineage (M.lotzei- M.aperta) is discussed. The occurrence of mesorbitolinids with a comparatively large and complex embryonic apparatus exhibiting a plano-convex protoconch already in the Gargasian is in conflict to the current phylogenetic concept of the genus Mesorbitolina. Further studies and emendation of this concept are needed. The new biostratigraphic data from the top of the Taft Formation indicate a stratigraphic hiatus of ca. 5myr at the contact to the overlying, ammonite-dated Darreh-Zanjir Formation, comprising the latest Aptian to earliest Albian. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chumakov N.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Linnemann U.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Hofmann M.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen | Pokrovskii B.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation | Year: 2011

The centers of many Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations were located on cratons and crystalline shields not necessarily, as some researchers believe, associated with rifts. An example is the Vendian Bol'shoi Patom glacial formation (Lena River, Yakutia). The U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from this formation imply that it was deposited by glaciers located on the pre-Riphean crystalline shields of the Siberian Platform. Glaciation in this region occurred after cessation of rifting and could not be related to the latter. The Bol'shoi Patom Formation is an element of the Middle Siberian glacial horizon that was deposited during the Marino Glaciation and is traceable along the southern periphery of the Siberian Platform from the Aldan Shield to the Baikal and Sayany regions. This indicates that the Marinoan Glaciation in Siberia involved at least the entire southern part of the Siberian Platform. Rifting was not the single, or even a principal, factor responsible for glaciations, although it could accompany and enhance them simultaneously providing space for sedimentation and conditions for preserving glacial deposits from erosion. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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