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Hundsdoerfer A.K.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Kitching I.J.,Natural History Museum in London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Analysing historic DNA from museum specimens offers the unique opportunity to study the molecular systematics and phylogenetics of rare and possibly extinct taxa. In the Hawaiian fauna, the hawkmoth, Hyles calida calida, occurs on several of the main islands and is quite frequent, whereas Hyles c. hawaiiensis is restricted to the Island of Hawaii where it appears to be very rare. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences shows that Hyles c. hawaiiensis differs from the nominotypical subspecies by an average p-distance of 2.8%, which is of a similar order of magnitude to that found between other species of Hyles, suggesting that Hyles c. hawaiiensis should perhaps be awarded species status, although more data are required for a formal taxonomic revision. Given the rarity of this taxon, these analyses should be undertaken urgently so that conservation measures can be implemented before it becomes extinct.& copy; 2017 Hundsdoerfer, Kitching. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Klass K.-D.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Matushkina N.A.,Taras Shevchenko National University | Kaidel J.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2012

The gonangulum is a sclerite in the female genitalic region of insects. Its presence or full development has long been considered an apomorphy supporting Zygentoma + Pterygota. Recent studies of female genitalia in several insect orders (K.-D. Klass and co-workers) revealed many new data on the gonangulum and homologous sclerotisations (laterocoxa LC9). Herein the gonangulum area is described (including articulations, muscle attachments, sulci) and compared among Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Odonata, Dermaptera, Dictyoptera, and Notoptera. A wider perspective is provided to the topic by addressing some novel issues: identification of LC9 sclerotisations in non-insect taxa and in insects that secondarily lack an ovipositor; occurrence of homonomous sclerotisations in other abdominal segments of both sexes; morphological interpretation of LC9; and the role of paedomorphosis in LC9 evolution. As a result, there is currently no support for any insect lineage from this character system. For gonangulum-related characters both a significant intra-ordinal variation and frequent homoplasy are demonstrated using various Odonata, Dermaptera, and Dictyoptera as examples. Divergent fates of LC9 in simplified genitalia are shown using a dermapteran and an odonatan. We view all this as a showcase of how a renewed and more detailed examination of a character system can dramatically change the phylogenetic evidence drawn from it. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Klass K.-D.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Matushkina N.A.,Taras Shevchenko National University
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2012

The exoskeleton of the female genitalic region (abdominal venters 7-9) in Petrobiellus takunagae (Machilidae-Petrobiellinae) is studied using light microscopy and SEM. Sclerites are distinguished from membrane by the degree of cuticular flexibility. However, the microsculpture of the cuticle is shown to be useful in characterising the heterogeneity of the cuticle and in detecting weak sclerotisations. The morphology of Petrobiellus is compared with that in Trigoniophthalmus alternatus (Machilidae-Machilinae) described previously. While venter 7 is similar, venters 8 and 9 show many differences in the presence/absence or fusion/separation of particular sclerites. This suggests female genitalic morphology to be a valuable character system for phylogenetic and taxonomic work in Archaeognatha. Comparison with other insect orders is aimed at detecting homologous structures and conditions. Important points are: (1) Petrobiellus has a sclerotised genital lobe posteriorly on venter 7, similar to Zygentoma and Dictyoptera; it bears the gonopore. (2) Petrobiellus has a posterior sclerite on venter 9 that is very similar to a sclerite of Odonata. (3) The morphology of the coxal lobes of venter 9 (gonoplacs) suggests their function as a sheath of the ovipositor. From female genitalic morphology we deduce the process of oviposition, describing an external egg transportation tract. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Marrone F.,University of Palermo | Lo Brutto S.,University of Palermo | Hundsdoerfer A.K.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Arculeo M.,University of Palermo
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Our comprehension of the phylogeny and diversity of most inland-water crustaceans is currently hampered by their pronounced morphological bradytely, which contributed to the affirmation of the "Cosmopolitanism Paradigm" of freshwater taxa. However, growing evidence of the existence of cryptic diversity and molecular regionalism is available for calanoid copepods, thus stressing the need for careful morphological and molecular studies in order to soundly investigate the systematics, diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Diaptomid copepods were here chosen as model taxa, and the morphological and molecular diversity of the species belonging to the west-Mediterranean diaptomid subgenus Occidodiaptomus were investigated with the aim of comparing the patterns of morphological and molecular evolution in freshwater copepods. Three species currently lumped under the binomen Hemidiaptomus (Occidodiaptomus) ingens and two highly divergent clades within H. (O.) roubaui were distinguished, thus showing an apparent discordance between the molecular distances recorded and Occidodiaptomus morphological homogeneity, and highlighting a noteworthy decoupling between the morphological and molecular diversity in the subgenus. Current Occidodiaptomus diversity pattern is ascribed to a combined effect of ancient vicariance and recent dispersal events. It is stressed that the lack of sound calibration points for the molecular clock makes it difficult to soundly temporally frame the diversification events of interest in the taxon studied, and thus to asses the role of morphological bradytely and of accelerated molecular evolutionary rates in shaping the current diversity of the group. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


A remarkable fossil plant assemblage from the lowermost Oligocene Haselbach horizon (GrÖbers Member, BÖhlen Formation) was excavated at the Vereinigtes Schleenhain opencast mine (northwestern Saxony, Germany) and is described herein. The lower unit of the Haselbach horizon represents abandoned channel deposits that contain masses of Zingiberoideophyllum liblarense leaves. Species identification of the leaves is based on morphological characters and micromorphological features of the cuticle. Other plant organs of the previously described whole plant Spirematospermum wetzleri-Zingiberoideophyllum liblarense, such as fruits, seeds, rhizomes, and rootlets, were also observed on associated bedding planes, which supports this whole-plant reconstruction. The other megafossil remains in this taphocoenosis, mostly leaves, are identified taxonomically and interpreted as being derived from a mixed softwood and hardwood riparian forest of Acer haselbachense, Apocynophyllum neriifolium, Carpinus grandis, Engelhardia orsbergensis, Populus germanica, Rosa lignitum, Taxodium dubium, and from a Nyssa-Taxodium swamp. Based on the plant taphonomy and the paleoecology of the plants, this plant assemblage was likely deposited in still water and therefore mainly parautochthonous. Vertical changes in the composition of the plant assemblage, in particular the disappearance of the Zingiberoideophyllum liblarence leaves, are attributed to changes in habitat, such as alterations in the soil substrate and/or rising water levels. Taphonomic and paleophytosociological aspects of the assemblage confirm the previously published autecological reconstruction of the Spirematospermum wetzleri-Zingiberoideophyllum liblarense whole plant as an aquatic subshrub growing in shallow standing water, most likely in monotypic dense stands or in association with the Apocynophyllum neriifolium-Microdiptera whole plant. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems of the family assignment of Zingiberoideophyllum liblarense are discussed briefly. The presence of transverse veins, also called cross veins, suggests an assignment to Zingiberaceae and excludes it from Musaceae. © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).


Kunzmann L.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2014

Pseudotsuga is an accessory element in the Neogene vegetation in Central Europe. Two species based on coalified seed cones and one species each based on leaves and wood have been described so far from Miocene and Pliocene localities, mainly in Germany. Based on a new seed cone record from the site of Wiesa in Germany, I describe here evidence supporting the extension of the stratigraphic range of Pseudotsuga jechorekiae Czaja, including the late early Miocene. An emended diagnosis is given and a neotype is proposed for the Pliocene Pseudotsuga loehrii comb. nov. The leaf record is revisited and critically evaluated as leaf cuticles previously determined as "Pseudotsuga oceanines" are reinterpreted herein as Tsuga or Nothotsuga. Subsequently, the late Oligocene presence of the genus in Central Europe exclusively based on "Pseudotsuga oceanines" remains doubtful. The fossil cone species are morphologically compared to the extant species, with the highest conformity found to the Asian species. Finally, palaeophytosociological, palaeoautecological and palaeoclimatic aspects of the fossil species are compiled. © 2014 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kehlmaier C.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Lampromyia bellasiciliae sp. n. is described from Sicily, Italy. The new species belongs to the pallida subgroup and is differentiated from related taxa in a dichotomous identification key. DNA barcodes for eight of the currently recognised ten Palaearctic species of Lampromyia are provided, and the calculated genetic distances between the taxa and species groups/subgroups are discussed. New distributional data for additional species of Lampromyia are presented and the occurrence of the Palaearctic taxa is depicted in a distribution map. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press


Hubler N.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Klass K.-D.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2013

The skeletal parts of the metendosternite and of the anteromedian part of the abdominal venter are studied in 39 species of Chrysomelinae (representing tribes Timarchini and Chrysomelini, and 10 of the 12 subtribes of Chrysomelini) and 4 species from Galerucinae, Criocerinae, and Cassidinae. The morphology of these body parts in Chrysomelinae is compared with other cucujiform beetles based on the literature, with a focus on a tenebrionid. The morphology of the metendosternite evidently includes much homoplasy across Cucujiformia including Chrysomelidae, whereby conclusions on the polarity of characters are very limited. The (fairly poor) phylogenetic evidence from the chrysomeline metendosternite is discussed including reflection of the current classification, of the only large-scale molecular-based phylogenetic study of Chrysomelinae, and of phylogenetic evidence from glands and their secretions. Chrysomelinae consistently have a very short metendosternal stalk, the anterior tendon originates far laterally from the furcal arm, and the anterior lamina is limited to the furcal arm or entirely absent (i.e. always absent in the median part of the metendosternite). These features appear as apomorphic compared to the examined Galerucinae, Criocerinae, and Cassidinae and suggest the exclusion of Galerucinae from Chrysomelinae (contra molecularbased results). Metendosternal characters suggest Phratora to belong to Chrysomelina, and Zygogramma and Cosmogramma to be close to Chrysolinina rather than Doryphorina; both is in accord with results derived from DNA sequences and from gland secretions. The two Chrysomelinae genera with reduced hind wings (Timarcha, Crosita) show simplifications in the metendosternite. It is suggested that some characters may depend on the age of the adults, the development of abdominal hemi-sternites I being one such character.


Kehlmaier C.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Assmann T.,Lüneburg University
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2010

This study presents the first phylogenetic estimate for the pipunculid subfamily Chalarinae (genera Chalarus Walker, Jassidophaga Aczél and Verrallia Mik) based on an analysis of one mitochondrial coding (cytochrome oxidase 1) and two nuclear non-coding genes (28s and ITS2), using parsimony under direct optimization as implemented in poy4. It completes earlier taxonomic works on these groups. The voucher material used was primarily of Palaearctic origin. The study strongly supports the monophyletic origin of Chalarinae as well as of Chalarus and Verrallia, but failed to recover a monophyletic lineage for Jassidophaga. Whereas the taxa of Jassidophaga with predominantly black-coloured legs clustered as a monophyletic sister to Verrallia, an Oriental Jassidophaga species with predominantly yellow/light brown-coloured legs represents a distinct genetic lineage. The Chalarus species included were resolved into eight well-supported genetic clades: C. angustifrons group, C. basalis group, C. clarus lineage, C. holosericeus group, C. immanis lineage, C. indistinctus group, C. latifrons group and C. spurius group. A phenetic analysis focused on intra- and interspecific genetic distances within the subfamily. As a consequence, the eastern Palaearctic C. rectifrons Morakote is proposed as a junior synonym of C. angustifrons Morakote (syn.n.). The structure of the C. basalis species group was investigated further with the intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primer (GACA)4. © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.


Kunzmann L.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Walther H.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2012

In this article, vegetational reconstructions of leaf floras from the early Oligocene Haselbach megafloral complex, which have been published by several authors since the 1960s, are compiled, summarised, reconsidered and partly revised. The geological setting of the fossilmaterial is updated based on the most recent monographs on stratigraphy and geology of the mid-German Paleogene. An annotated list of the leaf component of the Haselbach complex floras is given using the most recent nomenclature and taxonomy. Reconstructions previously illustrated as vegetational schemes are redrawn, with slight modifications to the original versions. Original captions of the schemes are revised with special attention given to the fossil plant names and sediment facies types. Typical fossil specimens that characterise the corresponding plant taphocoenoses quite well are included to complement the drawings. The importance of phytotaphonomic and palaeoecological data for the reconstructions of palaeoenvironments is emphasised. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer 2012.

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