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Oliveira I.D.S.,University of Leipzig | Schaffer S.,University of Leipzig | Kvartalnov P.V.,Moscow State University | Galoyan E.A.,Zoological Museum of Moscow University | And 5 more authors.
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2013

Although representatives of Peripatidae are widely distributed in South-East Asia, only three valid species of Eoperipatus and one species of Typhloperipatus have been described from this region. According to previous reports, the three species of Eoperipatus show little morphological variation and are difficult to distinguish from each other. In this study, we describe a new species of Eoperipatus from Vietnam, E. totoro sp. nov., using morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular data (mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA sequences). A comparison with specimens of an undescribed species of Eoperipatus from Thailand revealed novel species-specific characters, including the characteristics of male crural complexes, distinct types of scales on the ventral body surface, the inner structure of the circular pits on the male genital pad, and the position and size of the anal gland pads in males. The results of our molecular analyses correspond with those of morphological studies. In contrast to previous assumptions, our findings suggest a high diversity of the South-East Asian Peripatidae, which requires further exploration. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Senckenberg Natural History Collections, Wildlife Conservation Society, National University of Singapore, Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division and Prince of Songkla University
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2016

Species identification has traditionally relied on morphology. However, morphological conservatism can lead to a high incidence of cryptic species, as characters other than morphological ones can be biologically important. In birds, the combined application of bioacoustic and molecular criteria has led to an avalanche of cryptic species discoveries over the last two decades in which findings of deep vocal differentiation have usually been corroborated by molecular data or vice versa. In this study, we use genome-wide DNA data to uncover an unusual case of cryptic speciation in two species within the South-east Asian Streak-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi complex, in which both morphology and vocalizations have remained extremely similar. Despite a considerable pre-Pleistocene divergence of these two bulbul species, bioacoustic analysis failed to uncover differences in their main vocalization, but examination of live birds revealed important differences in eye color that had been overlooked in museum material. Our study demonstrates that genome-wide DNA data can be helpful in the detection of cryptic speciation, especially in species that have evolved limited morphological and behavioral differences.


Brehm G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum | Strutzenberger P.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections | Fiedler K.,University of Vienna
Ecography | Year: 2013

Species diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) has previously been shown to be extremely and constantly high along a continuously forested elevational gradient in the Andes of southern Ecuador. We analysed samples taken from 32 sites between 1999 and 2011 in northern Podocarpus National Park and adjacent areas from 1020 to 2916 m a.s.l. We conjecture that high elevation habitats were historically mostly colonised by species from lower elevations, and that environmental filtering (e.g. through host plant specificity or temperature tolerance) constrained colonisation from lower elevations, which would yield a pattern of elevationally decreasing phylogenetic diversity. We analysed elevational phylogenetic patterns by means of: 1) the nearest-taxon index (NTI), 2) DNA barcode-based terminal branch lengths (TBLs) from maximum-likelihood phylogeny, 3) the subfamily composition of the local assemblages, and 4), the rarefied number of morphologically defined genera per site. We counted a total of 1445 species. NTI values significantly increased with elevation, both in a conventional and a rarefaction approach. TBLs decreased significantly with elevation. Subfamily composition profoundly changed with elevation, particularly expressed as an increased proportion of the subfamily Larentiinae and decreased fractions of Sterrhinae and Geometrinae. The number of genera in equally rarefied species resamples significantly decreased with elevation. We conclude that environmental filtering indeed contributed to an altitudinal decrease in moth phylodiversity, but these constraints prevented only relatively few clades from colonising high elevation habitats. © 2013 The Authors.


Tietze D.T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Tietze D.T.,University of Heidelberg | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Fischer B.S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. © 2015 The Authors.


Oliveira I.d.S.,University of Leipzig | Franke F.A.,University of Leipzig | Hering L.,University of Leipzig | Schaffer S.,University of Leipzig | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensis gen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. © 2012 Oliveira et al.


Packert M.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Sun Y.-H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Strutzenberger P.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections
Ibis | Year: 2016

Competing systematic hypotheses have placed the Tibetan endemic Przevalski's Finch Urocynchramus pylzowi either with the Old World buntings (Emberizidae) or with the cardueline finches (Fringillidae, Carduelinae). Recent studies based on limited genetic evidence instead suggest an isolated position within Passeroidea and advocate a separate family, Urocynchramidae, as had been suggested much earlier on the grounds of morphology. We provide a time-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny for Passeroidea including Przevalski's Finch based on three mitochondrial markers and three nuclear introns that placed U. pylzowi in a clade together with Estrildidae, Viduidae and Ploceidae. A sister group relationship of U. pylzowi and weavers (Ploceidae) was concordant among three multilocus reconstructions but received only poor support. Divergence time estimates inferred from a fossil/biogeographical molecular dating approach suggested a late Oligocene split of U. pylzowi from its closest relatives at roughly 25 million years ago, making this the oldest known Tibetan endemic passerine. In addition to the molecular data, behavioural peculiarities and egg coloration further strengthen an isolated placement of U. pylzowi. © 2016 British Ornithologists' Union


PubMed | Senckenberg Natural History Collections, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, CAS Institute of Zoology and Goethe University Frankfurt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecology and evolution | Year: 2015

Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations.


Mally R.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections | Nuss M.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2011

Udea Guenée, 1845, comprising more than 200 species, predominantly occurs in temperate Eurasia and the New World, with few representatives on the southern continents of the Old World. We present a first phylogenetic analysis for the genus, mainly based on European species. We applied Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony approaches to a combined dataset of coxI (1,415 bp) and wingless (363 bp) sequences as well as morphological characters. The analysis of the concatenated dataset partitions with Bayesian inference yielded a hypothetical tree with 26 well supported (posterior probability ≥ 0.95) monophyla. A clade including the genera Deana, Mnesictena and Udeoides from the southern continents of the Old World is found as sister group to Udea. European Udea species do not form a monophyletic group in itself. There are four monophyla found within European Udea, the ferrugalis, itysalis, alpinalis, and numeralis species groups. These are well supported by molecular and morphological data. According to morphology, all four species groups have representatives also in other parts of the Holarctic region. Our data support the hypothesis that all Udea species endemic to oceanic islands in the Atlantic and Pacific belong to the ferrugalis group and all those endemic to the European Alps to the alpinalis group. Our data imply that the ancestors of two island species (Udea azorensis, U. delineatalis) have colonised the respective islands via ocean surface currents. Altogether, we are able to place 54 of the 213 described Udea species into species groups. © Museum für Tierkunde Dresden.


Packert M.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections | Martens J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Hering J.,Wolkenburger Strasse 11 | Kvist L.,University of Oulu | Illera J.C.,University of Oviedo
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Afrocanarian blue tits (Cyanistes teneriffae) have a scattered distribution on the Canary Islands and on the North African continent. To date, the Canary Islands have been considered the species' main Pleistocene evolutionary center, but their colonization pathways remain uncertain. We set out to reconstruct a dated multi-gene phylogeny and ancestral ranges for Cyanistes tit species including the currently unstudied, peripheral Libyan population of C. t. cyrenaicae. In all reconstructions the most easterly and westerly peripheral populations (in Libya and on La Palma) represented basal offshoots of C. teneriffae. These two peripheral populations shared all four major indels and differed in this respect from all other members of the Afrocanarian core group. The basal split of Afrocanarian blue tits from their European relatives was dated to the early Pliocene. The two ancestral area reconstructions were contradictory and suggested either a Canarian or a North African origin of C. teneriffae - but unambiguously ruled out a continental European ancestral range. We conclude that the peripheral populations of C. teneriffae represent relic lineages of a first faunal interchange, presumably downstream colonization from North Africa to the Canary Islands. Subsequent eastward stepping-stone colonization within the Canarian Archipelago culminated in a very recent late (possibly even post-) Pleistocene back-colonization from the Canary Islands to North Africa. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Senckenberg Natural History Collections and Museum dhistoire naturelle de Geneva
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2014

The Neotropical genus Catharylla Zeller, 1863 (type species: Crambus tenellus Zeller, 1839) is redescribed. Catharylla contiguella Zeller, 1872, C. interrupta Zeller, 1866 and Myelois sericina Zeller, 1881, included by Munroe (1995) in Catharylla, are moved to Argyria Hbner. Catharylla paulella Schaus, 1922 and C. tenellus (Zeller, 1839) are redescribed. Six new species are described by Lger and Landry: C. bijuga, C. chelicerata, C. coronata, C. gigantea, C. mayrabonillae and C. serrabonita. The phylogenetic relationships were investigated using morphological as well as molecular data (COI, wingless, EF-1 genes). The median and subterminal transverse lines of the forewing as well as the short anterior and posterior apophyses of the female genitalia are characteristic of the genus. The monophyly of Catharylla was recovered in all phylogenetic analyses of the molecular and the combined datasets, with three morphological apomorphies highlighted. Phylogenetic analyses of the morphology of the two sexes recovered three separate species groups within Catharylla: the chelicerata, the mayrabonillae, and the tenellus species groups. The possible position of Micrelephas Schaus, 1922 as sister to Catharylla, based on both morphological and molecular data, and the status of tribe Argyriini are discussed. The biogeographical data indicate that the chelicerata species group is restricted to the Guyanas and the Amazonian regions whereas the tenellus group is restricted to the Atlantic Forest in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The mayrabonillae group is widespread from Costa Rica to South Bolivia with an allopatric distribution of the two species. COI barcode sequences indicate relatively strong divergence within C. bijuga, C. mayrabonillae, C. serrabonita and C. tenellus.

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