Harvati K.,University of Tubingen |
Darlas A.,Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology of Northern Greece |
Bailey S.E.,New York University |
Bailey S.E.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2013
The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
von Koenigswald W.,University of Bonn |
Anders U.,University of Bonn |
Engels S.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut Frankfurt Am |
Schultz J.A.,University of Bonn |
Kullmer O.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut Frankfurt Am
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2013
A terminology for and visualizations of different mammalian mastication paths are provided, resulting from orientation of attritional and abrasional facets and striation on fossil (and extant) teeth. The occlusal motion of the left lower jaw is considered, and a moderate wear stage (IDAS 3) is used as standard. In contrast to conventional terminologies, the proposed nomenclature differentiates between the inclination and the direction of the lower jaw movement as projected onto a horizontal plane for each phase of the power stroke. The proposed mastication compass attempts to combine three aspects of the power stroke: (1) the number of phases, (2) the occlusal direction, and (3) the inclination of each phase. Descriptions and visualizations are given for several taxa in order to demonstrate its general applicability. The proposed new terminology and the mastication compass simplify comparisons of different modes of mastication in different mammalian taxa. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.