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Grunewald, Germany

Behrens R.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Engelhardt J.,Landesanstalt fur Personendosimetrie und Strahlenschutzausbildung | Figel M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Hupe O.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2012

In recent years, several papers dealing with eye lens dosimetry have been published as epidemiological studies are implying that the induction of cataracts occurs even at eye lens doses of less than 500 mGy. For that reason, the necessity to monitor the eye lens may become more important than it was before. However, only few dosemeters for the appropriate quantity Hp(3) are available. Partial-body dosemeters are usually designed to measure the quantity Hp(0.07) calibrated on a rod phantom representing a finger while a slab phantom much better represents the head. Therefore, in this work it was investigated whether dosemeters designed for the quantity Hp(0.07) calibrated on a rod phantom can also be worn on the head (close to the eyes) and still deliver correct results (Hp(0.07) on a head). For that purpose, different types of partial-body dosemeters from routine use were irradiated at different photon energies on both a rod and a slab phantom. It turned out that their response values are within ±5% independent of the phantom if the quantity value for the respective phantom is used. Thus, partial-body dosemeters designed for the quantity Hp(0.07) calibrated on a rod phantom may be worn on the head and used to monitor the eye lens dose due to photon radiation via the measurement of Hp(0.07) on the head. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Pham M.K.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Betti M.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Povinec P.P.,Comenius University | Benmansour M.,Center National Of Lenergie | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2011

A new certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in sea water from the Irish sea (IAEA-443) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Ten radionuclides (3H, 40K, 90Sr, 137Cs, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) have been certified, and information values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for four radionuclides (230Th, 232Th, 239Pu and 240Pu). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 228Th, 237Np and 241Pu) are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in water samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in 5 L units from IAEA ( http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/index.htm ). © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source


Gerike R.,TU Munich | Herzog G.,Abgeordneter im Deutschen Bundestag | Holzapfel H.,University of Kassel | Kiepe F.,Deutscher Stadtetag | And 5 more authors.
Larmbekampfung | Year: 2012

Effective noise control requires binding targets for overall noise exposure. Effective noise control requires an integrated strategy over all transport modes, all types of measures, short term to long term time horizons and the whole planning cycle. Central elements of such an integrated strategy are described. Background information on the status quo of the legal framework and on measures for reducing noise exposure form the basis for this strategy. The most important demands are summarized in ten key points. Source


de Vries G.,KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation | de Vries G.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Aldridge R.W.,University College London | Cayla J.A.,Public Health Agency of Barcelona | And 20 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared. Source


Dorgerloh U.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Theissen H.,IMAGO Technisch Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft BR | Becker R.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Hilbert S.,Senatsverwaltung fur Gesundheit | Nehls I.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Grundwasser | Year: 2010

The use of active (purge and sample, downhole type) and passive (diffusion type) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane was evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and considering the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, it was shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow as well as by biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is the preferred method in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using the head space technique was extended to the quantification of methane and ethene. Practically relevant limits of quantification of 0.1 μg/l (vinyl chloride, ethene) and 5 μg/l (methane) were obtained. The expected tolerance limits for quantification of VOC including the sampling process in monitoring campaigns were estimated by validation of the analytical procedure and various sampling series. The variability in monitoring results should be considered by consulting engineers and public authorities during assessment of degradation processes of halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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