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Budapest, Hungary

Founded in 1769, Semmelweis University is the oldest medical school in Hungary. The faculty became an independent medical school after the Second World War and developed into a university teaching medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, health science, and health management, as well as physical education and sport science. The university is named after Ignác Semmelweis , the obstetrician who discovered the cause of puerperal fever in the 1840s.The university has around 10,000 students from 60 nations over five continents. Its five faculties offer courses from undergraduate to doctorate level in Hungarian, English, and German. Foreign students account for about 18% of the total community.Semmelweis University is the largest health care institution in Hungary, with over 9,000 employees covering about 6% of the health care needs of the country’s population.With a quarter of a million of books, Semmelweis University has one of the biggest and best-furnished medical-biological collections in Hungary, and among the Hungarian universities, Semmelweis produces the greatest number of publications. The university is deeply involved in the patient care of the Great-Budapest region. Of its 3000 clinical beds, 75% take part in the regional medical care and some special outpatients' departments also supply the teaching hospitals with patients needed for the training.The portrait of Maria Theresa in the Assembly Hall of the University still commemorates the founding of the Medical Faculty by the Empress of Austria-Hungary more than 230 years ago, forging a continuous link in the education and training of medical students.The name of the University honors Ignác Semmelweis, a former professor of the Medical Faculty between 1855 and 1865, who discovered the cause and prevention of puerperal fever. Semmelweis was the first Hungarian university, which started to offer international courses at the Faculty of Medicine in German in 1983. The English programs started four years later, in 1987. Nowadays, the university enrolls more than 200 new international students each year. Still, students from Germany form the majority of the international student body, although numbers from Israel, Scandinavia, Ireland and Cyprus show consistent growth in recent years.The General Medicine program is listed by the WHO and it is recognized without any licensing examinations in all European Union countries The program leading to the Doctor of Medicine degree consists of six years: two years of general medical studies, three years of clinical studies, and one year of a rotating internship. International students enrolled in the English program are mostly from the EU, Norway, Israel, Cyprus, Iran, Japan, and the USA.The Semmelweis University seeks motivated candidates for the program with a solid background in biology and chemistry. In addition to these subjects, students must pass an entrance exam in English. The application deadline is in April and the course starts in September. Entrance exams are arranged at several locations in Europe, Israel, North America, Asia, and Africa.Since 1 September 2014, the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport science has been separated from Semmelweis University and continues to operate as an independent institution under the name University of Physical Education. Wikipedia.

Mocsai A.,Semmelweis University
The Journal of experimental medicine | Year: 2013

Neutrophils have long been considered simple suicide killers at the bottom of the hierarchy of the immune response. That view began to change 10-20 yr ago, when the sophisticated mechanisms behind how neutrophils locate and eliminate pathogens and regulate immunity and inflammation were discovered. The last few years witnessed a new wave of discoveries about additional novel and unexpected functions of these cells. Neutrophils have been proposed to participate in protection against intracellular pathogens such as viruses and mycobacteria. They have been shown to intimately shape the adaptive immune response at various levels, including marginal zone B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T cell populations, and even to control NK cell homeostasis. Neutrophils have been shown to mediate an alternative pathway of systemic anaphylaxis and to participate in allergic skin reactions. Finally, neutrophils were found to be involved in physiological and pathological processes beyond the immune system, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and thrombus formation. Many of those functions appear to be related to their unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. This review summarizes those novel findings on versatile functions of neutrophils and how they change our view of neutrophil biology in health and disease. Source

Firneisz G.,Semmelweis University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Farkas H.,Semmelweis University
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Bradykinin-mediated angioedema is characterized by subcutaneous and/or submucosal edema formation without wheals and pruritus. It is linked to bradykinin-enhanced vascular permeability and, therefore, it does not respond to conventional measures, but requires specific therapy. Areas covered: This summary briefly reviews the different types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema and its remedies. Therapy focuses on relieving edema, as well as on decreasing its incidence and severity. The modes of the actions of attenuated androgens and antifibrinolytics are not precisely known-these agents have been introduced on an empirical basis. Contemporary treatments, by contrast, have been purposely developed to inhibit bradykinin. Most experience pertains to angioedema resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency, and the controlled studies have focused on the hereditary form of this disease type (HAE). The pathomechanisms of HAE with normal C1-inhibitor activity, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-releated, and of non-histaminergic idiopathic sporadic angioedemas are largely unknown. Appropriate laboratory methods for the diagnosis, or specific interventions for the therapy of these conditions are not available or only available off-label. Expert opinion: In this case, diagnosis and management are challenging. The range of targeted therapeutic options has increased in recent years and includes measures to handle emergencies, prevent edematous episodes and manage additional types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Nagy Z.Z.,Semmelweis University
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Femtosecond lasers represent a new frontier in cataract surgery. Since their introduction and first human treatment in 2008, a lot of new developments have been achieved. In this review article, the physical principle of femtolasers is discussed, together with the indications and side effects of the method in cataract surgery. The most important clinical results are also presented regarding capsulotomy, fragmentation of the crystalline lens, corneal wound creation, and refractive results. Safety issues such as endothelial and macular changes are also discussed. The most important advantage of femtolaser cataract technology at present is that all the important surgical steps of cataract surgery can be planned and customized, delivering unparalleled accuracy, repeatability, and consistency in surgical results. The advantages of premium lenses can be maximally used in visual and presbyopia restoration as well. The advantages of premium lenses can be maximally used, not only in visual, but in presbyopia restoration as well. Quality of vision can be improved with less posterior chamber lens (PCL) tilt, more centralized position of the PCL, possibly less endothelial damage, less macular edema, and less posterior capsule opacification (PCO) formation. This technological achievement should be followed by other technical developments in the lens industry. Hopefully this review article will help us to understand the technology and the results to demonstrate the differences between the use of femtolasers and phacoemulsification-based cataract surgery. The most important data of the literature are summarized to show ophthalmologists the benefits of the technology in order to provide the best refractive results to the patient. © 2014 Nagy. Source

Szabo G.T.,Semmelweis University
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS | Year: 2014

Under physiological and pathological conditions, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in the extracellular compartment simultaneously with soluble mediators. We hypothesized that cytokine effects may be modulated by EVs, the recently recognized conveyors of intercellular messages. In order to test this hypothesis, human monocyte cells were incubated with CCRF acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line-derived EVs with or without the addition of recombinant human TNF, and global gene expression changes were analyzed. EVs alone regulated the expression of numerous genes related to inflammation and signaling. In combination, the effects of EVs and TNF were additive, antagonistic, or independent. The differential effects of EVs and TNF or their simultaneous presence were also validated by Taqman assays and ELISA, and by testing different populations of purified EVs. In the case of the paramount chemokine IL-8, we were able to demonstrate a synergistic upregulation by purified EVs and TNF. Our data suggest that neglecting the modulating role of EVs on the effects of soluble mediators may skew experimental results. On the other hand, considering the combined effects of cytokines and EVs may prove therapeutically useful by targeting both compartments at the same time. Source

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