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Zamora, Spain

Emergency services, both hospital based and pre-hospital, are care mechanisms that have been developed above all as a result of the General Health Law of 1986. They are in high demand and have a care overload, while they provide high quality care and are strategic elements in the working of the National Health System. However, their professionals, basic and substantial elements in their tasks, have been relegated in strategic planning and, above all, do not receive regulated specialised training in Emergency Medicine. This would guarantee that from the very moment they take up their care duties they have all of the abilities, skills and attitudes demanded of them by the patients' needs. This lack also prevents correct professional development, which is the basis of the future viability of the emergency services themselves. To resolve this dilemma, besides seeking solutions to the work and organisational problems of the different services, the creation of the Speciality of Accident and Emergency Medicine, in the framework of core medical studies, is an essential requisite. This is how it is being dealt with by our nearby countries and this need has been recognised by the Spanish Parliament and by the majority of political, social and professional sectors.

Kim H.J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Jeon M.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mishra A.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim I.J.,SEMES | And 2 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2015

A SiO2 layer masked with an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) has been etched in an Ar/C4F8 gas mixture with dual frequency capacitively coupled plasmas under variable frequency (13.56-60MHz)/pulsed rf source power and 2MHz continuous wave (CW) rf bias power, the effects of the frequency and pulsing of the source rf power on the SiO2 etch characteristics were investigated. By pulsing the rf power, an increased SiO2 etch selectivity was observed with decreasing SiO2 etch rate. However, when the rf power frequency was increased, not only a higher SiO2 etch rate but also higher SiO2 etch selectivity was observed for both CW and pulse modes. A higher CF2/F ratio and lower electron temperature were observed for both a higher source frequency mode and a pulsed plasma mode. Therefore, when the C 1s binding states of the etched SiO2 surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the increase of C-Fx bonding on the SiO2 surface was observed for a higher source frequency operation similar to a pulsed plasma condition indicating the increase of SiO2 etch selectivity over the ACL. The increase of the SiO2 etch rate with increasing etch selectivity for the higher source frequency operation appears to be related to the increase of the total plasma density with increasing CF2/F ratio in the plasma. The SiO2 etch profile was also improved not only by using the pulsed plasma but also by increasing the source frequency. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

Lee B.-J.,Kangwon National University | Cho S.-C.,SEMES | Jeong G.-H.,Kangwon National University
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2015

We demonstrate the surface treatment of graphene using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The graphene was synthesized by a thermal chemical vapor deposition with methane gas. A Mo foil and a SiO2 wafer covered by Ni films were employed to synthesize monolayer and mixed-layered graphene, respectively. The home-built APPJ system was ignited using nitrogen gas to functionalize the graphene surface, and we studied the effect of different treatment times and interdistance between the plasma jet and the graphene surface. After the APPJ treatment, the hydrophobic character of graphene surface changed to hydrophilic. We found that the change is due to the formation of functionalities such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the nitrogen plasma treatment induced charge doping on graphene, and the pyridinic nitrogen component in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum was significantly enhanced. We conclude that the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment enables controlling the graphene properties without introducing surface defects. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jeon M.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mishra A.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kang S.-K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim K.N.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 4 more authors.
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2013

60 MHz pulsed radio frequency (rf) source power and 2 MHz continuous wave rf bias power, were used for SiO2 etching masked with an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) in an Ar/C4F8/O2 gas mixture, and the effects of the frequency and duty ratio of the 60 MHz pulse rf power on the SiO2 etch characteristics were investigated. With decreasing duty ratio of the 60 MHz pulse rf power, not only the etch rate of SiO2 but also the etch rate of ACL was decreased, however, the etch selectivity of SiO2 over ACL was improved with decreasing the duty ratio. On the other hand, when the pulse frequency was varied at a constant duty ratio, no significant change in the etch rate and etch selectivity of both materials could be observed. The variation of the etch characteristics was believed to be related to the change in the gas dissociation characteristics caused by the change in the average electron temperature for different pulsing conditions. The improvement in the etch selectivity with the decrease of duty ratio, therefore, was related to the decreased gas dissociation of C 4F8 by the decrease of average electron temperature and, which resulted in a change in composition of the fluorocarbon polymer on the etched materials surface from C-C rich to CF2 rich. With decreasing the duty ratio, not only the etch selectivity but also the improvement in the SiO2 etch profile could be observed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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