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Beula J.M.,Scott Christian College | Gnanadesigan M.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Rajkumar P.B.,Scott Christian College | Ravikumar S.,Alagappa University | Anand M.,Madurai Kamaraj University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify the antiviral, antioxidant and toxicological evalution of the mangrove plant from South East coast of India. Methods: In vitro antiviral analysis such as RT inhibition assay, HBsAg binding assay, HBV DNA polymerase Inhibitory assays were carried out with the leaf extract of Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora apiculata mangrove plants. Further, the in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo toxicological assay was also carried out with the most potent Avicennia marina leaf extract. Results: Of the selected 4 mangrove plants, Avicennia marina leaf extract showed the minimum IC 50 values with 403.91, 489.39 and 372.09 μg/mL concentrations against reverse transcriptase inhibition assay, HBsAg binding assay, HBV DNA polymerase Inhibitory assays, respectively. The antioxidant IC 50 values were identified as 12.80±0.93, 640.06±34.93, 19.91±3.93 and 142.06±17.93 μg/mL concentrations against SOD, LPO, NO and DPPH assays, respectively. The phytochemical analysis of Avicennia marinaleaf extract showed the presence of reducing sugars, polyophenols, flavonoids and tannin. The LD 50 value was 2 500 mg/kg bodyweight and the sub acute toxicity analysis did not show any significant changes in serum and haematological parameters when compared with the control animals. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present findings that, the leaf extract of Avicennia marina can be further used as potential antiviral drug after completing the clinical trials. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


Banerjee M.B.,Scott Christian College | Ravikumar S.,Alagappa University | Gnanadesigan M.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Rajakumar B.,Scott Christian College | Anand M.,Madurai Kamaraj University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify the antiviral antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of marine halophyte. Methods: Mangrove associates such as Salicornia brachiata, Clerodendron inerme, Rhizophora lamarckii, Suaeda maritima were collected. In vitro antiviral studies such as HBsAg binding assay, DNA polymerase inhibition assay, RT inhibition assay were carried out. Moreover, antioxidant properties, ash content, elemental analysis, LD50 analysis were measured for the S. maritima leaf extract which was the most potent. Results: S. maritima leaf extract showed minimum concentration of IC50 value with HBsAg binding assay, DNA polymerase inhibition assay, RT inhibition assay as 325.98, 843.09 and 587.32 μg/ml concentrations respectively. Antioxidant properties of S. maritima leaf extract showed the minimum concentration (23.64±5.27μg/ml) of IC50 value with the nitric oxide scavenging assay, followed by DPPH assay (112.03±18.39μg/ml). The ash content of S. maritima leaf extract was varied between 8.05% to 87.30% concentrations. The elemental analysis of S. maritima showed the values within the limits of WHO guidelines. The lethal dose of S. maritima leaf extract was identified as 3000 mg/kg/body weight. The sub acute toxicity was not showed any significant differences with organ weights between control and extract treated animals. Biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, sugar and urea were not showed any significant variations between control and extract treated animals. But, the results of haematological parameters such as WBC (6600±234.90 cells/cumm), lymphocytes (69±14.09), polymorphs (38±9.38), eosinophils (02±0.00) were found significantly increased with extract treated animals. Phytochemical analysis of S. maritima leaf extract showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as reducing sugars, polyophenols, flavonoids and tannins with the leaf extract. Conclusions: The results of the present findings pave the way for the identification of novel molecules for the possible utilization of antiviral and antioxidant drugs from Suaeda maritima leaf. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


Velmurugan P.,Chonbuk National University | Velmurugan P.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Tamilselvi A.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Lakshmanaperumalsamy P.,Karpagam University | And 2 more authors.
Coloration Technology | Year: 2013

This study describes the dyeing efficiency of cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) and Monascus purpureus colorants on cotton fabric. The effects of mordant, dyeing time and temperature on the shades and fastness properties of both colorants were studied. The colour coordinate values indicate that the cochineal colorant exhibited higher colour strength than M. purpureus for premordanted cotton fabric (4% owf). Optimum dyeing with M. purpureus was observed at a temperature of 80 °C for 80 min at a 30:1 liquor ratio. However, for cochineal, the optimum dyeing conditions were 60 °C for 60 min at a 40:1 liquor ratio. Furthermore, both colorants demonstrated moderate to good fastness properties. The results of the study indicate that cochineal has better dyeing properties than M. purpureus colorants. © 2013 Society of Dyers and Colourists. Source


Ravikumar S.,Alagappa University | Gnanadesigan M.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Saravanan A.,Salem College | Monisha N.,Thassim Beevi Abdul Kader College for Women | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify the antibacterial potential of seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) associate microbes against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Eumeration of microbial associates were analyzed with leaf and root samples of Syringodium isoetifolium. MIC and MBC were calculated for bacterial pathogens with microbial associates. Phylogenetic and GC-MS analysis were calculated for Actinomycetes sp. (Act01) which was the most potent. Results: Of the isolated microbial associates phosphatase producing bacterial isolates were identified as maximum [(261.78±35.09) CFU×104/g] counts in root sample. Of the selected microbial isolates Actinomycete sp (Act01) showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant and fish bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of Act01 showed maximum identities (99%) with the Streptomyces sp. (GU5500072). The 16s rDNA secondary structure of Act01 showed the free energy values as -366.3 kkal/mol. The GC-MS analysis Act01 showed maximum retention value with 23.742 RT and the corresponding chemical class was identified as 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxybutyl)-9, 10-anthraquinone 9, 10-anthrac. Conclusions: In conclusion, Streptomyces sp. (GU045544.1) from Syringodium isoetifolium could be used as potential antibacterial agent. © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Source


Chandrasekaran R.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Chandrasekaran R.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Revathi K.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Thanigaivel A.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2014

An extracellular chitinase was identified and purified (CS1 and CS2) from Bacillus subtilis. The 16S rRNA sequencing was submitted in GenBank (accession numbers KC336487 and KC412256). The purified crude enzymes were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The peptide sequences were matched with chitinase sequences. The peak m/z with 1297. 592 and 3094.570 mascot search resulted sequence was blasted with NCBI protein sequences and confirmed that it is a chitinase enzyme. The effects of chitinase on gut enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura larvae were investigated. At all concentrations tested, chitinase decreased the activities of these gut enzymes relative to the control. When chitinase treated leaves were fed to larvae in bioassays, gut tissue and gut enzymes were affected. The histological study clearly shows the chitinase treated larval gut, peritrophic membrane and epithelial cells were affected significantly. Chitinase isolated from B. subtilis has effectively reduced the gut enzyme activity and growth of S. litura. The chitin based bioformulation may serve as an effective biocide against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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