Kerzers, Switzerland


Kerzers, Switzerland
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The invention relates to a method for fragmenting a rod-like semiconductor material (1), comprising the steps: a) providing a section (3) of the rod-like material (1) that is surrounded by a process fluid (2); b) arranging an electrode arrangement (4) comprising two electrodes (5, 6) in the region of this section (3) in such a way that the electrodes (5, 6) are immersed in the process fluid (2) and are at a distance from one another and are each at a distance from the rod-like material (1), c) generating high-voltage breakdowns through the rod-like material (1) and/or along the surface of the rod-like material (1) in the region of the electrodes (5, 6) by applying high-voltage pulses to the electrode arrangement (4), wherein, during the generation of the high-voltage breakdowns, a relative movement in the longitudinal direction of the rod-like material (1) is generated between the electrode arrangement (4) and the rod-like material (1). By virtue of the method according to the invention, it is possible to comminute rod-like semiconductor material into a fraction of relatively uniform size and shape with a low energy expenditure, and to maintain a low contamination with foreign material.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WASTE-3-2014 | Award Amount: 7.67M | Year: 2015

EU28 currently generates 461 million tons per year of ever more complex construction and demolition waste (C&DW) with average recycling rates of around 46%. There is still a significant loss of potential valuable minerals, metals and organic materials all over Europe. The main goal of HISER project is to develop and demonstrate novel cost-effective technological and non-technological holistic solutions for a higher recovery of raw materials from ever more complex C&DW, by considering circular economy approaches throughout the building value chain (from the End-of-Life Buildings to new Buildings). The following solutions are proposed: - Harmonized procedures complemented with an intelligent tool and a supply chain tracking system, for highly-efficient sorting at source in demolition and refurbishment works. - Advanced sorting and recycling technologies for the production and automated quality assessment of high-purity raw materials from complex C&DW. - Development of optimized building products (low embodied energy cements, green concretes, bricks, plasterboards and gypsum plasters, extruded composites) through the partial replacement of virgin raw materials by higher amounts of secondary high-purity raw materials recovered from complex C&DW. These solutions will be demonstrated in demolition projects and 5 case studies across Europe. Moreover, the economic and environmental impact of the HISER solutions will be quantified, from a life cycle perspective (LCA/LCC), and policy and standards recommendations encouraging the implementation of the best solutions will be drafted. HISER will contribute to higher levels of recovered materials from C&DW from 212 Mt in 2014, to 359 Mt in 2020 and 491 Mt by ca. 2030, on the basis of the increase in the recovery of aggregates, from 40% (169 Mt) to more than 80% (394 t) and wood, from 31% (2.4 Mt) to 55% (5 Mt);. Similarly, unlocking valuable raw materials currently not exploited is foreseen, namely some metals and emerging flows.

Smith V.C.,University of Oxford | Mark D.F.,Scottish Universities Environmental Research Center | Staff R.A.,University of Oxford | Blockley S.P.E.,Royal Holloway, University of London | And 7 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2011

The varved Suigetsu (SG06) sediment core is potentially one of the most important and well-constrained mid-latitude palaeoclimate archives, recording continuous deposition during the last ∼150 kyrs. Numerous visible and non-visible volcanic ash layers form unique age markers within SG06. These ash layers are too fine and crystal-poor to be directly dated using the 40Ar/39Ar technique so the tephra were correlated to proximal volcanic deposits using their glass shard compositions. A high-precision 40Ar/39Ar sanidine age of 10.0 ± 0.3 ka (1σ, n = 34, MSWD = 0.71, p = 0.89) was obtained for the SG06-1288 (U-Oki) proximal tephra (Ulleungdo U4). 40Ar/39Ar yields a precision of ±3% near the younger limit of the method, with improved precision possible for older SG06 samples. Such 40Ar/39Ar ages for tephra layers can provide invaluable tie-points within the Lake Suigetsu SG06 sequence, giving independent verification of the core's varve chronology, allowing for the calibration of cosmogenic nuclide production, and providing a precise chronology beyond the varve limit. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shi F.,Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Center | Weh A.,SELFRAG AG | Manlapig E.,Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Center | Wang E.,Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Center
26th International Mineral Processing Congress, IMPC 2012: Innovative Processing for Sustainable Growth - Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

In the current energy-sensitive world, sustainable development in the mineral industry will require new, better and more efficient processes. Novel comminution methods, which offer the prospect of achieving the required outcomes of size reduction and mineral liberation at lower energy consumption, are continually being sought. In the past five years, extensive research using high voltage pulse electrical comminution technology has been carried out at the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC), in collaboration with selFrag AG. The major outcome of this research is the development of the concept of pre-weakening ore particles by electrical comminution procedures to reduce the energy consumption in the downstream grinding circuit. The research has also verified the preferential liberation of valuable minerals by electrical comminution. Given the advantages, several potential applications of electrical comminution in the mineral industry are proposed, including AG/SAG mill feed pre-weakening, pebble treatment, ball mill feed pre-weakening, early recovery of the liberated valuable minerals, crack/micro crack generation for improved leaching, and smelter slag treatment. For the mineral industry to utilize electrical comminution, two emerging issues identified from the research need to be address. They are the energy consumption by electrical comminution in the locked cycle treatment and the facilities scale up necessary to move this technology from the laboratory to the plant.

Van Der Wielen K.P.,University of Exeter | Pascoe R.,University of Exeter | Weh A.,SelFrag AG | Wall F.,University of Exeter | Rollinson G.,University of Exeter
Minerals Engineering | Year: 2013

High voltage breakage is a novel comminution method that relies on highly energetic electrical pulses to weaken or fully fragment rocks. The potential of this technology to improve liberation and increase the grindability of ores has been demonstrated previously, but the fragmentation process is not fully understood. In this study a total of 20 rock types were treated in a SELFRAG Lab device to determine the influence of equipment parameters on breakage. Rock mass properties and Bond Work Index were determined for each rock type to identify their relation to breakage behaviour. Results show how, by influencing total applied energy, the number of discharges and voltage are the two major influences on the resultant product size. It has also been shown that coarser feed sizes are more amenable to high voltage breakage. Acoustic impedance, porosity and quartz content were found to relate to breakage but Bond Work Index only correlates loosely. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The invention relates to a method for fragmenting material (1) by means of high-voltage discharges (6). The material (1) to be fragmented is guided through a process zone (5) formed between two electrodes (3, 4), while high-voltage discharges (6) are generated between said electrodes (3, 4) for fragmenting the material (1). The high-voltage discharges (6) are triggered subject to a continuously determined process parameter, which represents the situation with respect to the material (1) located in the process zone (5). In this way, the process can be guided such that high-voltage discharges (6) are only triggered if there is a situation in the process zone (5) in which a specified fragmentation work can be performed. By this, the energy efficiency of the process can be considerably improved, and an excessive fragmentation of the material (1) can be prevented.

The invention concerns a method of fragmenting and/or weakening of material by means of high voltage discharges. The material is together with a process liquid introduced into a process area, in which two electrodes face each other at a distance, and is arranged therein in such a manner that the area between the two electrodes is filled with material and process liquid. Between the two electrodes high voltage discharges are generated for fragmenting or weakening, respectively, of the material. According to the invention, during the fragmenting or weakening, respectively, of the material, process liquid is discharged from the process area and process liquid is fed into the process area. The process liquid which is fed has a lower electrical conductivity than the process liquid which is discharged.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2012-1-ECO-01-053 | Award Amount: 435.00K | Year: 2012

Carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymeres (CFRP) have known advantages and are typically used for applications in aerospace engineering. Up to date existing mechanical combined with chemical process produce only low quality recovery of carbon-fibres from the polymer matrices at high costs. Electrodynamic fragmentation has the potential to overcome this situation. The method is based on the interaction of an electrical discharge with a solid between 2 electrodes immersed in water. Selective liberation is caused by a detachment along the interfaces in a tensile stress regime, which allows an intact recovery of the components. Objective of the herein presented proposal is the implementation of a specific electrodynamic fragmentation plant to process CFRPs with the goal to regain non-damaged carbon fibres, which then can be reused. SELFRAG is a manufacturer and the expert of electrodynamic fragmentation equipment and will ellaborate above target during several work package. This start with investigation about the behaviour of different CFRPs in the SELFRAG process in regards of different process conditions, equipment setups and process strategies. Liberation of the fibres will be assessed by external laboratory. In the following work packages these results will be optimized, transferred during up-scaling and prototyping with the final goal of demonstration plant. The stage/gate organisation with to achieve milestones guarantees a realistic project management. SELFRAG has the expertise to perform this process development and process engineering, which matches the topic of the call completely. Future application of this innovative technology, means a boost of competitiveness and growth in European Union along with creating jobs. Accelaration of developement of clean air technologies for air transport in the EU is achieved.

The invention relates to an electrode arrangement for an electrodynamic fragmentation plant having a passage opening (1) for fragmentation material (3) and having several electrode pairs (4a, 5a; 4a, 5b; 4b, 5c; 4b, 5d; 4c, 5e; 4c, 5f; 4d, 5g; 4d, 5h) by means of which, by charging the electrodes (4a-4d, 5a-5h) thereof with high-voltage pulses, in each case high-voltage discharges can be generated within the passage opening (1), for fragmentation of the fragmentation material (3). The passage opening (1) is formed in such a way and the electrodes (4a-4d, 5a-5h) of the electrode pairs are arranged therein in such a way that for each electrode pair (4a, 5a; 4a, 5b; 4b, 5c; 4b, 5d; 4c, 5e; 4c, 5f; 4d, 5g; 4d, 5h) in the area of a shortest connecting line (L) between the electrodes of the respective electrode pair, a ball (K) can pass through the passage opening (1), the diameter of which is bigger than the length of this respective shortest connecting line (L). With such an electrode arrangement it is possible to carry out an electrodynamic fragmentation of fragmenatation material in an economical manner with comparatively small high-voltage pulses. This also results in the possibility of expanding the realizable target value range of existing plants considerably in the direction of larger target values by retrofitting such plants with the electrode arrangement according to the invention.

A method of fragmenting a material by means of high voltage discharges includes feeding the material through a process zone arranged between two electrodes flooded with a process liquid. High voltage discharges are generated between the electrodes and process liquid is fed into and discharged from the process zone. In that state, a degree of turbidity of the process liquid discharged is determined and compared with a reference value. In case a deviation from the reference value is detected, one or more parameters of the generation of high voltage discharges and/or of the feeding of the material through the process zone are changed such that, when after the changing of the parameters the determination of the degree of turbidity and the comparing with the reference value is repeated, the deviation which is detected is reduced or no deviation is detected.

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