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Bridges G.A.,University of Minnesota | Mussard M.L.,Ohio State University | Helser L.A.,Select Sires Inc. | Day M.L.,Ohio State University
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

The objectives were to compare follicular dynamics, preovulatory estradiol concentrations, and progesterone concentrations between the 7-day (7CO, n = 15) and 5-day (5CO, n = 13) CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) program in primiparous suckled beef cows. On Day -7 (7CO) or Day -5 (5CO), GnRH (100 μg) was administered (GnRH-1) and a CIDR was inserted. On Day 0, hour 0, CIDR was removed and cows received PGF2α (25 mg) at hours 0 and 12. Animals were administered GnRH (100 μg, GnRH-2) at either hour 60 (7CO) or 72 (5CO). Follicular growth and ovulation to both GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 were evaluated using ultrasonography. Concentrations of estradiol were determined in blood samples taken at hours 0, 36, 60, and 72 (5CO). Blood samples were collected on Days 5, 8, and 14 for progesterone quantification. Ovulation rate to GnRH-1 did not differ between the 7CO (11/15) and 5CO (8/13) treatments, and for all dependent variables the statistical model included treatment, ovulation to GnRH-1, and their interaction. Diameter (mm) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ between treatments (13.4 ± 0.3) but was greater (P < 0.05) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (13.8 ± 0.3) than those did not (12.6 ± 0.6). Maximum estradiol concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the 5CO (7.3 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than 7CO (6.1 ± 0.7 pg/mL) treatment and tended to be greater (P = 0.08) in cows that responded to GnRH-1 (7.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL) than those did not (5.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL). Three cows in the 7CO treatment failed to develop a CL after GnRH-2. There was a treatment by response to GnRH-1 interaction (P < 0.05) for progesterone concentrations. In cows that did not respond to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment, progesterone concentrations were less (P< 0.05) than in those that responded to GnRH-1 in the 7CO treatment and tended (P = 0.09) to be less than in cows in the 5CO treatment that did not respond to GnRH-1. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that failure to respond to GnRH-1 is detrimental to estradiol and progesterone concentrations with a 7-day interval between GnRH-1 and PGF2α but of little consequence when this interval is shortened to 5 days. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Utt M.D.,Select Sires Inc.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Alkar A.,Washington State University | Tibary A.,Washington State University | Wenz J.R.,Washington State University | Nebel R.L.,Select Sires Inc. | Kasimanickam R.,Washington State University
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to determine the effect of presynchronization with GnRH 7 d prior to the initiation of resynchronization with CO-Synch on pregnancy/AI (P/AI) of resynchronization in lactating dairy cows, and the effect of GnRH on P/AI from previous breeding. All parity Holstein cows (n = 3287) from four dairy farms were enrolled. Cows not detected in estrus by 28 ± 3 d (Day -7) after a previous breeding were assigned to receive either GnRH (100 μg, im; n = 1636) or no GnRH (Control; n = 1651). Cows not detected in estrus during the 7 d after GnRH underwent pregnancy diagnosis (35 ± 3 d after previous breeding, Day 0); non-pregnant cows (n = 1232) in the Control (n = 645) and GnRH (n = 587) groups were resynchronized with a CO-Synch protocol. Briefly, cows received 100 μg GnRH on Day 0, 25 mg PGF 2α on Day 7, and 72 h later (Day 10) were given 100 μg GnRH and concurrently inseminated. Serum progesterone concentrations (n = 55 cows) were elevated in 47.3, 70.9, and 74.5% of cows on Days -7, 0, and 7, respectively. The proportion of cows with high progesterone concentrations on Day -7 and Day 0 were 44.1% and 88.2% (P < 0.003), and 55.2% and 33.2% (P > 0.1), for GnRH and Control groups, respectively. Accounting for significant variables such as locations (P < 0.0001) and parity categories (P < 0.05), the P/AI (35 ± 3 d after AI) for resynchronization was not different between GnRH and Control groups [26.7% (95% CI: 23.2, 30.5; (157/587) vs 28.4% (95% CI: 25.0, 31.9; (183/645); P > 0.1]. There were no significant location by treatment or parity by treatment interactions. Accounting for significant variables such as location (P < 0.0001) and parity categories (P < 0.001), the P/AI was not different between GnRH and Control groups for the previous service [60.2%; 95% CI: 57.9, 62.6; (986/1636) vs 59.1%; 95% CI: 56.7, 61.5; (976/1651); P > 0.1)]. There were no significant location by treatment or parity by treatment interactions. In conclusion, more cows presynchronized with GnRH 7 d prior to resynchronization with CO-Synch had elevated progesterone concentrations at initiation of resynchronization than those not presynchronized. The GnRH treatment 7 d prior to resynchronization with CO-Synch, when given 28 ± 3 d after a previous breeding, did not improve P/AI in lactating dairy cows; furthermore, compared to the control, it did not significantly affect pregnancy rate from the previous breeding. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Amann R.P.,Colorado State University | DeJarnette J.M.,Select Sires Inc.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

Breeding of dairy cattle is undergoing a paradigm shift to genomic selection of potential sires and dams. This undoubtedly will affect how bulls are managed in an artificial insemination (AI) center and impact methods to estimate their 'fertility'. Our goal is to help decision-makers understand the contents of a straw of semen, current estimates of sire fertility, and how estimates might evolve in a genomic era. Sire fertility is estimated from outcome (pregnant or not) after 300 to > 2,000 inseminations and reported in units (U) as a sire's deviation from a population (> 500 bulls) average pregnancy rate (PR). Too often users do not recognize that imprecision of an estimate encompasses a 3-U range, or more. 'True fertility' of the sire whose semen is inseminated influences outcome far less than 'true fertility' of each female and a myriad of microenvironment and management factors. Further, AI centers discard substandard collections and intentionally adjust number of sperm per straw so that differences in pregnancy rates achieved by different sires are minimized! For > 80% of Holstein bulls, estimated 'sire conception rates' are within a 5.4-U range. In the future, most sires will be 15 to 40 mo old and services will accumulate at > 1,000/mo. Estimated sire conception rates still will be a deviation from the population mean, but should be based on records for the most recent 6 or 12 mo, rather than 48 or 60 mo. Repeated 'snap shots' every 2 mo would allow AI centers to adjust number of sperm per AI straw from genomic-sires in a timely manner, to maintain high pregnancy rates, and to meet market demands with sires producing ~40% as many sperm as mature 'proven sires' of yesteryear. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Select Sires Inc. | Date: 2016-03-07

Animal semen for artificial insemination.

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