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St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

Carey S.,University of Rhode Island | Olsen R.,University of Rhode Island | Ballard R.,University of Rhode Island | Dondin F.,Seismic Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2016

Kick'em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (∼70 × 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180°C. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. Gas flux measurements of individual bubble streams range from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5-35°C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are colonized by reddish-yellow bacteria with the production of Fe-oxyhydroxides as surface coatings, fragile spires up to several meters in height, and elongated mounds up to tens of centimeters thick. A high-resolution photomosaic of the inner crater depression shows fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression toward the crater floor. We suggest that the negatively buoyant fluid flow is the result of phase separation of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

D'Oriano C.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Cioni R.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Cioni R.,University of Cagliari | Bertagnini A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Volcanology | Year: 2011

Recent stratigraphic studies at Vesuvius have revealed that, during the past 4,000 years, long lasting, moderate to low-intensity eruptions, associated with continuous or pulsating ash emission, have repeatedly occurred. The present work focuses on the AS1a eruption, the first of a series of ash-dominated explosive episodes which characterized the period between the two Subplinian eruptions of 472 AD and 1631 AD. The deposits of this eruption consist of an alternation of massive and thinly laminated ash layers and minor well sorted lapilli beds, reflecting the pulsatory injection into the atmosphere of variably concentrated ash-plumes alternating with Violent Strombolian stages. Despite its nearly constant chemical composition, the juvenile material shows variable external clast morphologies and groundmass textures, reflecting the fragmentation of a magma body with lateral and/or vertical gradients in both vesicularity and crystal content. Glass compositions and mineralogical assemblages indicate that the eruption was fed by rather homogeneous phonotephritic magma batches rising from a reservoir located at ~ 4 km (100 MPa) depth, with fluctuations between magma delivery and magma discharge. Using crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses of plagioclase and leucite microlites, we estimate that the transit time of the magma in the conduit was on the order of ~ 2 days, corresponding to an ascent rate of around 2 × 10-2 ms-1. Accordingly, assuming a typical conduit diameter for this type of eruption, the minimum duration of the AS1a event is between about 1.5 and 6 years. Magma fragmentation occurred in an inertially driven regime that, in a magma with low viscosity and surface tension, can act also under conditions of slow ascent. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Cioni R.,University of Cagliari | Cioni R.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Bertagnini A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Andronico D.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Volcanology | Year: 2011

We describe the products of the hitherto poorly known 512 AD eruption at Vesuvius, Italy. The deposit records a complex sequence of eruptive events, and it has been subdivided into eight main units, composed of stratified scoria lapilli or thin subordinate ash-rich layers. All the units formed by deposition from tephra fallout, pyroclastic density currents of limited extent being restricted to the initial stages of the eruption (U2). The main part of the deposit (U3 and U5) is characterized by a striking grain size alternation of fine to coarse lapilli, similar to that often described for mid-intensity, explosive eruptions. The erupted products have a phonotephritic composition, with progressively less evolved composition from the base to the top of the stratigraphic sequence. Based on different dispersal, sedimentological and textural features of the products, we identify five phases related to different eruptive styles: opening phase (U1, U2), subplinian phase (U3 to U5), pulsatory phreatomagmatic phase (U6), violent strombolian phase (U7) and final ash-dominated phase (U8). A DRE volume of 0.025 km 3 has been calculated for the total fallout deposit. Most of the magma was erupted during the subplinian phase; lithic dispersal data indicate peak column heights of between 10 and 15 km, which correspond to a mass discharge rate (MDR) of 5 × 10 6 kg s -1. The lower intensity, violent strombolian phase coincided with the eruption of the least evolved magma; a peak column height of 6-9 km, corresponding to an MDR of 1 ×10 6 kg s -1, is estimated from field data. Phreatomagmatic activity played a minor role in the eruption, only contributing to the ash-rich deposits of U1, U4, U6 and U8. The two most striking features of the 512 AD eruption are the recurrent shifting of the eruption style and the pulsatory nature of the subplinian phase. Basing on a large set of observational data, we propose a model to explain this complex dynamics, also observed in other eruptions of similar scale from Vesuvius and elsewhere. The inbalance between the rates of magma supply and magma eruption may have caused the frequent changes in the eruptive style. Conversely, the high frequency oscillations of magma discharge recorded by the deposits of the subplinian phase were possibly related to cyclic instabilities in the permeability of the low viscosity magma column, which modulated magma fragmentation and discharge. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Anglade A.,Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Guadeloupe OVSG IPGP | Lemarchand A.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Saurel J.-M.,Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique OVSM IPGP | Clouard V.,Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique OVSM IPGP | And 12 more authors.
Advances in Geosciences | Year: 2015

In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre (http://centrededonnees.ipgp. fr/index.php?lang=EN). This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean TsunamiWarning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc. © Author(s) 2015.

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