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In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry. © The Author 2017. Published by Cambridge University Press.


PubMed | Kagoshima University, Osaka Prefecture University and Seisen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

Recently, we have demonstrated the utility of Eimeria krijgsmanni as a novel mouse eimerian parasite for elucidating the biological diversity. The parasite showed notable infectivity to mice with various levels of immune status and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents including coccidiostat. However, the detailed lifecycle of E. krijgsmanni had not yet been determined and this information was lacking in discussion of previous findings. In the present study, we clarified the morphological characteristics of E. krijgsmanni and its lifecycle in normal mice, and examined the effects in immunodeficient mice and lifecycle stage for challenge infections after the primary inoculation. In immunocompetent mice, the lifecycle consisted of four asexual stages and the sexual sages followed by formation of oocysts during the prepatent periods. Interestingly, the second-generation meronts were detected in all observation periods after the disappearance of the other stages. For the challenge infection of immunodeficient mice, all developmental stages except for the second generation meronts were temporarily vanished. This finding suggests a rest or marked delay in development and a restart of the promotion toward the next generations. The second generation meronts may play an important role in the lifecycle of E. krijgsmanni.


Vigeh M.,Japanese National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Vigeh M.,Juntendo University | Yokoyama K.,Juntendo University | Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2014

The effect of prenatal lead exposure on child development has been a topic of public health concern for decades. To estimate prenatal lead exposure effects on early childhood development, maternal blood (n = 364) and umbilical cord blood (n = 224) samples were collected during pregnancy and at delivery. Mental development was assessed using the Harold Ireton Early Child Development Inventory from 174 children. Maternal whole blood lead levels in the first trimester were significantly higher in children with developmental scores <20% than in those with normal scores (mean ± standard deviation: 6.3 ± 1.9 vs 4.0 ± 2.4 μg/dL, respectively, P =.01). Maternal blood lead levels in the first trimester were also inversely associated with the development scores (r = -0.155, P =.041). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between increasing maternal blood lead levels in the first trimester with low development scores (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.57, P =.005). The findings of the present study showed a relatively low level of prenatal lead exposure (mean < 6.5 μg/dL) associated with lower developmental scores in early childhood. © The Author(s) 2014.


Nunoi M.,Seisen University | Yoshikawa S.,Kyoto University
Shinrigaku Kenkyu | Year: 2016

Our preferences are influenced by the presence of others. However, it is unclear how the simultaneous presence of multiple others influences preference judgment. In this study, we presented multiple happy or disgust face images around a target and examined their influence on target preference. In Experiment 1, we presented only happy or disgust faces in order to examine the influence of quantity. In Experiment 2 and 3, we manipulated the ratio of happy or disgust and neutral faces. Findings revealed that the happy face increased the target preference and its effect varied by the ratio of happy faces. On the other hand, the disgust face decreased the target preference only if there was one such face. These results indicate that although the numeric information of others' facial expressions influences preference judgment, this influence differs with the nature of others' expressions.


Kikuchi Y.,Saga University | Nakano Y.,Osaka University | Nakatsukasa M.,Kyoto University | Kunimatsu Y.,Kyoto University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

This paper describes the morphology of cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene primate species excavated from Nachola, Kenya in 1999-2002. The cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus are larger than those of . Papio cynocephalus. They are more robust relative to more caudal vertebral bones. Since . Nacholapithecus had large forelimbs, it is assumed that strong cervical vertebrae would have been required to resist muscle reaction forces during locomotion. On the other hand, the vertebral foramen of the lower cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus is almost the same size as or smaller than that of . P. cynocephalus. Atlas specimens of . Nacholapithecus resemble those of extant great apes with regard to the superior articular facet, and they have an anterior tubercle trait intermediate between that of extant apes and other primate species. Nacholapithecus has a relatively short and thick dens on the axis, similar to those of extant great apes and the axis body shape is intermediate between that of extant apes and other primates. Moreover, an intermediate trait between extant great apes and other primate species has been indicated with regard to the angle between the prezygapophyseal articular facets of the axis in . Nacholapithecus. Although the atlas of . Nacholapithecus is inferred as having a primitive morphology (i.e., possessing a lateral bridge), the shape of the atlas and axis leads to speculation that locomotion or posture in . Nacholapithecus involved more orthograde behavior similar to that of extant apes, and, in so far as cervical vertebral morphology is concerned, it is thought that . Nacholapithecus was incipiently specialized toward the characteristics of extant hominoids. © 2012.


Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | Hasegawa H.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Shinohara Y.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Kobayashi J.,Juntendo University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

A method for the stereoselective determination of d- and l-enantiomers of selenomethionine in mouse plasma was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). dl-[2H3, 82Se]selenomethionine was used as analytical internal standard to account for losses associated with the extraction, derivatization and chromatography. Selenomethionine enantiomers in mouse plasma were purified by cation-exchange chromatography using BondElut SCX cartridge and derivatized with HCl in methanol to form methyl ester followed by subsequent N-acylation with optically active (+)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride to form diastereomeric amide. Quantification was performed by SIM of the molecular-related ions of the diastereomers on the chemical ionization mode. The intra- and inter-day precision for d- and l-selenomethionine spiked to mouse plasma gave good reproducibility with relative standard deviation of 3% and 3% for d-selenomethionine and 6% and 3% for l-selenomethionine, respectively. The estimated amounts were in good agreement with the actual amounts spiked, the intra- and inter-day relative error being 5% and 2% for d-selenomethionine and 2% and 1% for l-selenomethionine, respectively. The present method is sensitive enough to determine pharmacokinetics of selenomethionine enantiomers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Vigeh M.,Japanese National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Vigeh M.,Juntendo University | Yokoyama K.,Juntendo University | Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | And 2 more authors.
Women and Health | Year: 2015

To clarify the relationship of prenatal arsenic exposure to hemoglobin concentrations and anemia during pregnancy, a longitudinal study was conducted of 364 participants during early pregnancy from October 2006 to March 2011 in Tehran, Iran. Maternal whole blood (taken between 8–12 and 20–24 weeks of gestation, and at delivery) and umbilical cord blood samples were collected for arsenic measurement. The mean concentration of maternal blood arsenic in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly lower in anemic women compared with non-anemic participants (mean ± SD: 12.4 ± 3.4 versus 14.8 ± 4.0 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). Maternal whole blood arsenic levels in the first and third trimesters were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with hemoglobin concentrations measured throughout gestation (r = 0.312, 0.424, and 0.183). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased maternal blood arsenic levels in the first trimester were significantly negatively associated to anemia during pregnancy (OR = 0.85, CI: 0.77–0.94, p < 0.01). The present study showed that prenatal blood arsenic exposure was not a risk factor for the occurrence of anemia. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Watanabe M.,Juntendo University | Shinohara A.,Juntendo University | Shinohara A.,Seisen University | Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | And 5 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been reported to be associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and sudden death. We examined the influence of chronic Mg deficiency on cardiac tolerance to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Main methods: Mice were fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks, and then their hearts were excised for Langendorff perfusion experiments. The levels of total Mg in the blood and heart were quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. Key findings: In Mg-deficient mice, the Mg concentration in whole blood was markedly decreased; however, that in the heart remained unchanged. When the hearts of control mice were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation, removal of extracellular Mg from a normal Krebs solution containing 1.2 mM Mg resulted in a significant decrease in the recovery of the tension-rate product (TRP) upon reoxygenation. In Mg-deficient mice, the recovery of TRP in the heart was reduced significantly in the absence of extracellular Mg compared to that in controls. The addition of Mg to the perfusate did not improve TRP recovery. During hypoxia/reoxygenation, cardiac damage evaluated by myocardial aspartate amino trasferase (AST) release was greater in hearts of Mg-deficient mice than in that of control mice. Significance: These results indicate that chronic Mg deficiency causes severe hypomagnesemia and a decrease in cardiac tolerance to hypoxia, without changing the intracellular Mg content. The decreased tolerance to hypoxia was not affected by the presence or absence of extracellular Mg, suggesting that some intracellular metabolic abnormalities develop in the cardiac myocytes of Mg-deficient mice. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Juntendo University, Kawasaki Institute of Industry Promotion, University of Tokyo, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology | Year: 2016

A more immediate impact for therapeutic approaches of current clinical research efforts is of major interest, which might be obtained by developing a noninvasive radiation dose-escalation strategy, and neutron capture therapy represents one such novel approach. Furthermore, some recent researches on neutron capture therapy have focused on using gadolinium as an alternative or complementary for currently used boron, taking into account several advantages that gadolinium offers. Therefore, in this study, we carried out feasibility evaluation for both single and multiple injections of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent incorporated in calcium phosphate nanoparticles as neutron capture therapy agent.In vivo evaluation was performed on colon carcinoma Col-26 tumor-bearing mice irradiated at nuclear reactor facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute with average neutron fluence of 1.8 10(12) n/cm(2). Antitumor effectivity was evaluated based on tumor growth suppression assessed until 27 days after neutron irradiation, followed by histopathological analysis on tumor slice.The experimental results showed that the tumor growth of irradiated mice injected beforehand with Gd-DTPA-incorporating calcium phosphate-based nanoparticles was suppressed up to four times higher compared to the non-treated group, supported by the results of histopathological analysis.The results of antitumor effectivity observed on tumor-bearing mice after neutron irradiation indicated possible effectivity of gadolinium-based neutron capture therapy treatment.


PubMed | Juntendo University, Seisen University and Japanese National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of child neurology | Year: 2014

The effect of prenatal lead exposure on child development has been a topic of public health concern for decades. To estimate prenatal lead exposure effects on early childhood development, maternal blood (n = 364) and umbilical cord blood (n = 224) samples were collected during pregnancy and at delivery. Mental development was assessed using the Harold Ireton Early Child Development Inventory from 174 children. Maternal whole blood lead levels in the first trimester were significantly higher in children with developmental scores <20% than in those with normal scores (mean standard deviation: 6.3 1.9 vs 4.0 2.4 g/dL, respectively, P = .01). Maternal blood lead levels in the first trimester were also inversely associated with the development scores (r = -0.155, P = .041). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between increasing maternal blood lead levels in the first trimester with low development scores (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.57, P = .005). The findings of the present study showed a relatively low level of prenatal lead exposure (mean < 6.5 g/dL) associated with lower developmental scores in early childhood.

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