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Shinagawa-ku, Japan

Kikuchi Y.,Saga University | Nakano Y.,Osaka University | Nakatsukasa M.,Kyoto University | Kunimatsu Y.,Kyoto University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

This paper describes the morphology of cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene primate species excavated from Nachola, Kenya in 1999-2002. The cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus are larger than those of . Papio cynocephalus. They are more robust relative to more caudal vertebral bones. Since . Nacholapithecus had large forelimbs, it is assumed that strong cervical vertebrae would have been required to resist muscle reaction forces during locomotion. On the other hand, the vertebral foramen of the lower cervical vertebrae in . Nacholapithecus is almost the same size as or smaller than that of . P. cynocephalus. Atlas specimens of . Nacholapithecus resemble those of extant great apes with regard to the superior articular facet, and they have an anterior tubercle trait intermediate between that of extant apes and other primate species. Nacholapithecus has a relatively short and thick dens on the axis, similar to those of extant great apes and the axis body shape is intermediate between that of extant apes and other primates. Moreover, an intermediate trait between extant great apes and other primate species has been indicated with regard to the angle between the prezygapophyseal articular facets of the axis in . Nacholapithecus. Although the atlas of . Nacholapithecus is inferred as having a primitive morphology (i.e., possessing a lateral bridge), the shape of the atlas and axis leads to speculation that locomotion or posture in . Nacholapithecus involved more orthograde behavior similar to that of extant apes, and, in so far as cervical vertebral morphology is concerned, it is thought that . Nacholapithecus was incipiently specialized toward the characteristics of extant hominoids. © 2012. Source


Yamashita T.,Kobe City College of Nursing | Llave C.,University of the Philippines | Tanaka Y.,Seisen University | Matsuo H.,Kobe University
Tropical Medicine and Health | Year: 2015

Background: Given the shortage of medical professionals in the Philippines, Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) may play a role in providing postpartum healthcare services. However, as there are no reports regarding BHW activities in postpartum healthcare, we conducted this study to understand postpartum healthcare services and to explore the challenges and motivations of maternal health service providers. Methods: Focus group interview (FGI) of 13 participants was conducted as qualitative research methodology at Muntinlupa City. The results were analyzed according to the interview guide. The proceedings of the FGI were transcribed verbatim, and researchers read and coded the transcripts. The codes were then used to construct categories. Results: Four important activities were highlighted among 11 analysis codes. These activities were “Assessment of postpartum women’s conditions,” “Recommendation to visit a health facility,” “Measurement of blood-pressure and vitamin intake,” and “Providing postpartum health information.” Among five analysis codes, we identified three challenges that BHWs face, which were “No current information regarding postpartum care,” “Some postpartum women do not want to receive healthcare services from BHW,” and “Too many assigned postpartum women.” Among five analysis codes, we identified two reasons for continuing BHW activities, which were “Hospitality to help postpartum women and their family in the community” and “Performance of mission in providing BHW services.” Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate BHW activities in postpartum healthcare services. Our results indicate that BHWs play a potentially important role in evaluating postpartum women’s physical and mental conditions through home-visiting services. However, several difficulties adversely affected their activities, and these must be addressed to maximize the contributions of BHWs to the postpartum healthcare system. © 2015 by The Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine. Source


Kikuchi H.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Kikuchi H.,Yasuda Womens University | Yuan B.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Nishimura Y.,Yasuda Womens University | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/ casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy. Source


Vigeh M.,Japanese National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Vigeh M.,Juntendo University | Yokoyama K.,Juntendo University | Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | And 2 more authors.
Women and Health | Year: 2015

To clarify the relationship of prenatal arsenic exposure to hemoglobin concentrations and anemia during pregnancy, a longitudinal study was conducted of 364 participants during early pregnancy from October 2006 to March 2011 in Tehran, Iran. Maternal whole blood (taken between 8–12 and 20–24 weeks of gestation, and at delivery) and umbilical cord blood samples were collected for arsenic measurement. The mean concentration of maternal blood arsenic in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly lower in anemic women compared with non-anemic participants (mean ± SD: 12.4 ± 3.4 versus 14.8 ± 4.0 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). Maternal whole blood arsenic levels in the first and third trimesters were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with hemoglobin concentrations measured throughout gestation (r = 0.312, 0.424, and 0.183). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased maternal blood arsenic levels in the first trimester were significantly negatively associated to anemia during pregnancy (OR = 0.85, CI: 0.77–0.94, p < 0.01). The present study showed that prenatal blood arsenic exposure was not a risk factor for the occurrence of anemia. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Matsukawa T.,Juntendo University | Hasegawa H.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Shinohara Y.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Kobayashi J.,Juntendo University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

A method for the stereoselective determination of d- and l-enantiomers of selenomethionine in mouse plasma was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). dl-[2H3, 82Se]selenomethionine was used as analytical internal standard to account for losses associated with the extraction, derivatization and chromatography. Selenomethionine enantiomers in mouse plasma were purified by cation-exchange chromatography using BondElut SCX cartridge and derivatized with HCl in methanol to form methyl ester followed by subsequent N-acylation with optically active (+)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride to form diastereomeric amide. Quantification was performed by SIM of the molecular-related ions of the diastereomers on the chemical ionization mode. The intra- and inter-day precision for d- and l-selenomethionine spiked to mouse plasma gave good reproducibility with relative standard deviation of 3% and 3% for d-selenomethionine and 6% and 3% for l-selenomethionine, respectively. The estimated amounts were in good agreement with the actual amounts spiked, the intra- and inter-day relative error being 5% and 2% for d-selenomethionine and 2% and 1% for l-selenomethionine, respectively. The present method is sensitive enough to determine pharmacokinetics of selenomethionine enantiomers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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