Mathiasen H.,Copenhagen University |
Bligaard J.,SEGES |
Esbjerg P.,Copenhagen University
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2015
The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics, yet to what degree is unknown. This study investigates the effect of exposure time, cold acclimation, and larval stage on survival at -5 and -10 °C. Exposure time at -5 °C was 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h at -10 °C. Mortality increased with increasing exposure time and was significantly lower for cold-acclimated larvae. Estimated time until an expected mortality of 50% (LT50) and 90% (LT90) of larvae exposed to -5 °C was 7.4 and 9.6 days (non-acclimated) and 11.0 and 15.1 days (acclimated), respectively. Estimated LT50 for non-acclimated and acclimated larvae exposed to -10 °C was 32.6 and 70.5 h, respectively, and estimated LT90 66.8 and 132.2 h. Significant differences in mortality between larval stages were observed only at -5 °C. When exposed to -5 °C for 8 days, mortality of first and second instars was 81.2 and 51.3%, respectively. When exposed to -10 °C for 2 days, mortality of first and second instars was 70.5 and 76.1%. Data on winter temperatures in Denmark from 1990 to 2013 showed that larvae were rarely exposed to a number of continuous days at -5 or -10 °C causing a potential larval mortality of 50-90%. © 2015 The Netherlands Entomological Society.
Ranjitkar S.,University of Aarhus |
Karlsson A.H.,Copenhagen University |
Petersen M.A.,Copenhagen University |
Bredie W.L.P.,Copenhagen University |
And 2 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2016
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding strategy in broiler production. © 2016 British Poultry Science Ltd.
Su G.,University of Aarhus |
Ma P.,University of Aarhus |
Nielsen U.S.,SEGES |
Aamand G.P.,Nordic Cattle Genetic Evaluation |
And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2015
Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference data and including cows in reference population are efficient approaches to increase reliability of genomic prediction. Therefore, genomic selection is promising for numerically small population. © The Animal Consortium 2015 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Jensen L.M.,Copenhagen University |
Nielsen N.I.,SEGES |
Nadeau E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Markussen B.,Copenhagen University |
Norgaard P.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of five models predicting dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows fed total mixed ration (TMR). The five models were the North American model from NRC, and the Northern European models: NorFor (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden), TDMI (Finland), Zom (the Netherlands), and Gruber (Austria, Germany, Switzerland).The evaluated models represent different approaches to predict DMI. One approach uses only animal characteristics; a second uses the interaction between animal and dietary characteristics, and a third uses no production characteristics, such as body weight or milk yield. These different modelling approaches results in very different substitution rates, where only two of the models demonstrate direct or indirect relation to concentrate allocation. Accuracy of DMI prediction was evaluated by mean square prediction error (MSPE), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), together with the decomposition of error into error of central tendency (ECT), error of regression (ER), and error due to disturbance (ED). The evaluation was performed on data from 12 Scandinavian production experiments with a total of 917 lactating dairy cows in 94 treatment means. The NorFor model was evaluated on only 9 of the experiments as 3 experiments had been used in the development of this model.The five models predicted DMI in groups of dairy cows fed TMR with RMSPE ranging between 1.2. kg dry matter (DM) per day for the Gruber model to 3.2. kg DM per day for the Zom model. Evaluated across the experiment the ECT and the ER ranged between 0.3% and 65% and between 3% and 38% of MSPE, respectively. Error associated to ED ranged between 31% and 93% of MSPE. When all five models were evaluated for prediction of DMI both across and within experiments, results revealed that all five models predicted differences between diets within experiments better than differences across experiments. The Gruber model, which predicted DMI most accurately did so due to its negligible systematic error (ECT, ER) resulting in 93% of the error located in ED. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Kristensen T.,University of Aarhus |
Aaes O.,SEGES |
Weisbjerg M.R.,University of Aarhus
Livestock Science | Year: 2015
Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 - representing a local-based production, (B) 1950 - representing a period with emerging mechanization and introduction of new technologies and a more global market, (C) 1980 - representing a period with heavy use of external resources like fertilizer and feed protein and (D) 2010 - today with focus on balancing production and risk of environmental damage. In A, B and C, other livestock such as pigs and hens also played a role, while the dairy farm in 2010 only had cattle. In 1920 and 1950 the farm was based on 7-8 dairy cows producing typically 1800-3400kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow annually and fed primarily on pasture and hay, only to a limited extent supplemented with imported protein. In 1980 the herd size had increased to 20 dairy cows producing 5000kg ECM each, and feeding was with silage instead of hay, but still included grazing and there was a larger proportion of imported feed. In 2010 the herd had increased to 134 dairy cows producing 9000kg ECM per cow and fed indoors all year. During this period net energy used for milk and meat in % of total intake and land use per 1000kg of milk has steadily decreased as a consequence of higher milk yield per cow and higher yields of forage per ha. In opposition, the utilization of N in the herd, while increasing from 1920 to 1950 and to 2010 showed a drop in the 1980 system, where also the environmental N surplus per ha farmland was highest (40; 65; 226; 148kg N per ha farmland in the respective periods). The lower N efficiency in 1980 also resulted in an increased GHG emission per kg milk than in the preceding and following periods (2.23; 1.38; 1.94; 1.20kg CO2-eq. per kg ECM in the respective periods). It is concluded that the biological and technical development has made it possible to reduce the environmental load of dairy production significantly, but that this requires a strong focus on nitrogen management at the farm level and production efficiency in the herd. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..