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Merseyside, United Kingdom

Dissanayake P.,University of Konstanz | Brown J.,National Oceanographic Center | Wisse P.,Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council | Karunarathna H.,University of Swansea
Marine Geology | Year: 2015

Impacts of storm clustering on beach/dune morphodynamics were investigated by applying the state-of-the-art numerical model XBeach to Formby Point (Sefton coast, UK). The adopted storm cluster was established by analysing the observed winter storms from December 2013 to January 2014 using a storm threshold wave height. The first storm that occurred during this period is regarded as exceptionally intense, and the occurrence of such a cluster of events is very unusual. A 1D model was setup for the highly dynamic cross-shore at Formby Point. After initial calibration of the model parameters against available post-storm profile data, the model was used for the simulation of the storm cluster. It was assumed that no beach recovery occurred between adjacent storms due to the very short time intervals between storms. As a result, the final predicted post-storm profile of the previous storm was used as the pre-storm profile of the subsequent storm. The predicted evolution during each storm was influenced by the previous storms in the cluster. Due to the clustering effect, the bed level change is not proportional to the storm power of events within the cluster, as it would be in an individual storm case. Initially, the large storm events interact with the multi-bared foreshore enabling the subsequent weaker storms to influence the upper beach and lower dune system. This results in greater change at the dune toe level also during less severe subsequent storms. It is also shown that the usual water level threshold used to define dune erosion is over predicted by about 1. m for extreme storm conditions. The predicted profile evolution provides useful insights into the morphodynamic processes of beach/dune systems during a storm cluster (using Formby Point as an example), which is very useful for quantifying the clustering effects to develop tools for coastal management. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Thurston A.,UK Environment Agency | Lymbery G.,Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council
Innovative Coastal Zone Management: Sustainable Engineering for a Dynamic Coast - 7th International Coastal Management Conference | Year: 2012

Maritime Authorities and the Environment Agency have been working together to develop consistent standards and approach to inspecting and recording coastal asset condition information around the coastline of England and Wales. Two pilot studies in the North West and South West of England have tested the compatibility of existing asset inspection training, methodology and reporting tools when applied to coastal assets. The pilots have taken different approaches and have identified improvements to enable national consistency of coastal asset condition data. They have also demonstrated very positive collaborative working between the Environment Agency and Maritime Authorities. Source

Stojanovic T.,University of Cardiff | Green D.R.,University of Aberdeen | Lymbery G.,Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2010

This paper explores how coastal data and information can be mobilised in information systems and applied in coastal management. The concept of an Information System is defined and described, and the potential role of Local Information System (LIS) in integrated coastal management (ICM) is considered. Three examples, from the Severn Estuary, UK the coast of the North West of England and North Wales, and the Fal and Helford estuaries, are used to demonstrate the requirements of a LIS for coastal areas. The role of GIS as part of the solution is considered in detail. The paper demonstrates how ideas from the disciplines of information systems and information science can be practically applied in coastal areas. The findings promote a holistic approach for those involved in the development of technologies and dealing with data and information about coasts and oceans. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dissanayake P.,University of Swansea | Brown J.,National Oceanographic Center | Wisse P.,Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council | Karunarathna H.,University of Swansea
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2015

Two-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the impacts of storm clustering on the beach/dune evolution of the Sefton coast, Liverpool Bay, UK. A storm cluster consisting of a series of closely spaced seven events was identified using observed wave and surge data during the 2013/2014 winter period. First event in this cluster is regarded as exceptionally intense and the occurrence of seven storms within a very short time period, is unique. The XBeach coastal area model was used to simulate beach change from 1) the storm sequence (Clustered events) and 2) the same storms considering them as isolated events. Offshore metadata was transformed to the nearshore area using the Delft3D and SWAN models. Resulting evolution was first compared with the available post-storm profiles measured at a number of locations along the Sefton coast. Analysis of the Clustered and Isolated simulations showed the effect of clustering on the Sefton beach/dune system when compared to the impact of isolated events occurring on a fully recovered beach system. Morphological change occurred during each storm in the Cluster was influenced by the preceding storm(s), such that the evolution is not proportional to the storm power of the event, as it would be for Isolated events. Both storm cases resulted in heavy erosion at Formby Point (i.e. central of the Sefton coast) and accretion in the north and south. The Cluster prevented system recovery with the area of erosion continually extending south along the coast compared with that in Isolated events. The initial storm within the Cluster caused large bed level changes in the nearshore ridge-runnel system, enabling the subsequent storms to penetrate further south. The local convex geometry of the Sefton coast is found to have more influence on the beach/dune morphodynamics than the clustering effect. This study enhances the understanding beach/dune response to storm clusters, to interpret observed morphological changes and to develop tools for sustainable coastal management particularly in the Sefton coast and generally in similar systems worldwide. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mahoney G.,Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council | Stewart A.G.,Public Health England | Kennedy N.,St Helens Metropolitan Borough Council | Whitely B.,AMEC Environment and Infrastructure UK Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2015

While scientific understanding of environmental issues develops through careful observation, experiment and modelling, the application of such advances in the day to day world is much less clean and tidy. Merseyside in northwest England has an industrial heritage from the earliest days of the industrial revolution. Indeed, the chemical industry was borne here. Land contamination issues are rife, as are problems with air quality. Through the examination of one case study for each topic, the practicalities of applied science are explored. An integrated, multidisciplinary response to pollution needs more than a scientific risk assessment. The needs of the various groups (from public to government) involved in the situations must be considered, as well as wider, relevant contexts (from history to European legislation), before a truly integrated response can be generated. However, no such situation exists in isolation and the introduction of environmental investigations and the exploration of suitable, integrated responses will alter the situation in unexpected ways, which must be considered carefully and incorporated in a rolling fashion to enable solutions to continue to be applicable and relevant to the problem being faced. This integrated approach has been tested over many years in Merseyside and found to be a robust approach to ever-changing problems that are well described by the management term, “wicked problems”. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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