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Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2012

This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of liquid paraffin-entrapped multiple-unit alginate-based floating system containing cloxacillin by emulsion-gelation method for gastro retentive delivery. The effect of process variables like drug to polymer ratio by weight, and liquid paraffin to water ratio by volume on various physicochemical properties in case of liquid paraffin-entrapped calcium alginate beads containing cloxacillin applicable to drug entrapment efficiency, density and drug release was optimized using 3 2 factorial design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The observed (actual values) responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.63±0.78%, density of 0.90±0.05g/cm 3, and drug release of 56.72±0.85% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8h with floating lag time of 8.45min and floated well over 12h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The average size of all dried beads ranged from 1.73±0.04 to 1.97±0.08mm. The beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of cloxacillin over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The cloxacillin release profile from liquid paraffin beads followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model over a period of 8h with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism for drug release. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2012

This present investigation deals with the development and optimization of buoyant beads containing ibuprofen by emulsion-gelation method for gastroretentive delivery. The effect of three independent process variables like amount of sodium alginate, magnesium stearate, and liquid paraffin on drug entrapment, density, and drug release of buoyant beads containing ibuprofen was optimized using 2 3 factorial design. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 83.07±3.25%, density of 0.89±0.11g/cm 3, cumulative drug release of 35.02±1.24% after 8h, and floated well over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) with 4.50min buoyant lag-time. The average size of all buoyant beads ranged from 1.43±0.05 to 1.82±0.14mm. The buoyant beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of ibuprofen over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The ibuprofen release profile from these buoyant beads followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model over a period of 8h with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism for drug release. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3 2 factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl 2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,Guru Ghasidas University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed mucilage (FSM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl for oral use were developed through ionotropic-gelation technique. Effects of GG to FSM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10h, %) of ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 32 factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads showed DEE of 92.53 ± 3.85% and R10h of 55.28 ± 1.58% and mean diameter of 1.62 ± 0.22 mm. The in vitro metformin HCl release from these ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG beads was prolonged over 10 h and followed zero-order model with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,Guru Ghasidas University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2013

The present study deals with the formulation optimization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 32 factorial design. The effect of sodium alginate to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 97.48±3.92%, R10h of 65.70±2.22%, and mean diameter of 1.16±0.11mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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