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Roy S.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Metzger R.,TransLife Organ Procurement Organization | Metzger R.,Florida Hospital Medical Center | Chen J.G.,Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2014

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments. Although Naegleria fowleri solid organ transplant transmission has not been reported to date, human postmortem findings and animal studies suggest that N. fowleri extra-CNS dissemination can occur; therefore the risks of transplantation with an organ from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis should be carefully weighed against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. © 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Source

Goodman S.M.,Field Museum of Natural History | Goodman S.M.,British Petroleum | Taylor P.J.,University of Venda | Ratrimomanarivo F.,British Petroleum | Hoofer S.R.,Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Using molecular genetics, male sexual organ morphology (baculum), and cranio-dental characters, we describe a new spe-cies of the genus Neoromicia from Madagascar, N. robertsi sp. nov. It is presumed to be endemic to the island and is known from three specimens taken in montane areas of the eastern central region. The new species shows 1.0 % and 2.8% divergence in the 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, from its nearest congener and is notably larger in cranio-dental measurements than other members of the genus occurring on Madagascar. This new species was previously iden-tified as N. melckorum, which is considered a junior synonym of southern African N. capensis. Neoromicia malagasyen-sis, an endemic to central western Madagascar, is the sister species to N. robertsi and the two are best considered vicariant species. Specimens provisionally assigned to N. malagasyensis, but notably smaller in baculum and skull size, and with different baculum morphology, probably represent another unknown species from the island. Given the apparent rarity of N. robertsi compared with other Malagasy members of this genus living in the eastern portion of Madagascar, it is con-sidered a taxon of conservation concern. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Steadman S.A.,Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center | Hoofer S.R.,Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center | Geering S.C.,Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center | King S.,Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2015

This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

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