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Panchkula, India

The arid region of western Rajasthan, parts of southern Haryana, and the Kutch region of Gujarat harbor a unique biodiversity that is adapted to conditions of low water availability. Recognizing the region's chronic scarcity of water, the local communities have developed unique methods for the storage and conservation of water, such as step-wells, khadin, etc., to sustain themselves and their agricultural activities. The farmers have developed ingenious agroforestry systems that incorporate indigenous multipurpose trees (Prosopis cineraria), exotic drought-tolerant cereals (pearl millet), and pulses (cowpea), in order to facilitate dryland agriculture and to effectively manage the extreme environment. The traditional animal husbandry of nomadic settlements (the phase in human evolution subsequent to that of hunting and gathering) is still practiced, facilitating the sustainable use of grasslands and its development into a profitable proposition. Further, the region has contributed to international agriculture by selecting early-maturing, drought-, heat-, and salinity-tolerant varieties in major crops. The present article illustrates these facts in some detail to justify the proposition of this region as another Agricultural Biodiversity Heritage Site. Source

The Koraput region of the Eastern Ghats of India is a unique area of topographical and ecological diversity with great variation in altitude (80-1, 500 m). It is predominantly inhabited by some of the most primitive tribes of diverse origin, who are mostly involved in agriculture-related activities. The archeological evidences and available agrobiodiversity, including the ancestral species and the intermediate forms of some of the important crop species suggest that the interaction of the early tribes with the landscape and the biodiversity has resulted in the domestication of several species, including some of the most important crops, like rice and pigeonpea, breeds of some cattle, and the introduction of a few species. The cultivation of domesticated species under diverse ecological conditions evolved various production systems suited to the diverse ecologies and a reservoir of genetic diversity in the form of landraces and farmers' varieties. Together the local tribes have conserved diverse cultural and cultivation practices, and a large number of landraces and farmers' varieties, making significant contributions towards global agriculture. Recently, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in recognition of these significant contributions facilitating the livelihood of humanity have recognized the region as one of the sites of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems. The present article enumerates some of these contributions to justify the world recognition, and proposes the region as another Indian national agricultural biodiversity heritage site. Source

Bhargava O.N.,Sector | Frank W.,Koehldorfer Street 26 | Bertle R.,Geognos Bertle Zt Gmbtt
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

The Tons Valley, situated in the central-easternmost part of the Himachal Lesser Himalaya, adjoining the Garhwal Himalaya, shows geological features suggestive of a strong pre-Tertiary deformational episode. The Paleoproterozoic Dharagad Group, overlain by the Mesoproterozoic Deoban and Neoproterozoic Simla groups rest as a thrust sheet over the Middle Cambrian Chilar Formation, which occurs as windows and also as tectonic slivers within the thrust sheet designated as the Dharagad Thrust Sheet (DTS). The mineral lineation, inclination of tectonic slivers and overturned beds suggest that the DTS was translated from the NE. The westernmost and southwesternmost leading edges of the DTS are exposed at Subathu and Morni WNW and WSW respectively of the Tons Valley. The position of the leading edges of the DTS vis-à-vis the windows in the Tons Valley suggest a minimum translation of about 50. km for the DTS. The Simla Group at Subathu and the Deoban at Morni, forming parts of the DTS, constitute basement for the Thanetian-Lutetian Subathu Formation of the Himalayan Foreland Basin (HFB). This stratigraphic relationship unambiguously demonstrates that the Simla and the Deoban Groups, forming leading edges of the allochthonous DTS, were already translated and emplaced at Subathu and Morni before the creation of the HFB in which the deposition commenced with the Subathu Formation in Thanetian. It implies that the DTS was translated from the NE to the present position at Subathu and Morni in pre-Thanetian time. There is no direct evidence to constrain the age of the thrusting.In view of regional regression in Late Cambrian, a distinct angular unconformity between the Cambrian and the overlying Ordovician, Early Paleozoic metamorphism and extensive development of Early Paleozoic granites and their rapid exhumation, a Late Cambrian age is suggested for the DTS thrusting. Not only the direction of movement of the DTS is same as that of the Tertiary thrust sheets but also Cambrian folds are co-axial with the Tertiary folds. This strange coincidence shows that similar kinematic field existed during two tectonic events. A ridge, like the present Central Crystalline Axis, was elevated between the Tethyan and Lesser Himalayan basins, which contributed zircons of the Early Cambrian age to both basins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Williams J.C.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Basu A.R.,University of Rochester | Bhargava O.N.,Sector | Ahluwalia A.D.,Panjab University | Hannigan R.E.,University of Massachusetts Boston
Chemical Geology | Year: 2012

The geochemistry of black shales can faithfully record paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the original geochemical signatures are obscured by post-depositional events such as diagenesis and weathering. Resolving the relative influence of these processes on the geochemistry of shales requires a combination of geochemical and chemometric (chemical statistics) approaches to data analysis that identify the sources of variance in major and trace element geochemistry. The Permian Gungri Shale (Kuling Group) at Attargoo (Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India) is a gray to black shale capped, unconformably by an iron-rich pebble-sand layer ("ferruginous layer") marking, ostensibly, the Permian-Triassic boundary. High resolution analysis of the Gungri at Attargoo (~. 3. cm intervals) reveals a geochemical record complicated by low-grade metamorphism/diagenesis and modern weathering. Using multivariate chemometric techniques (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) we identified variance in the geochemical record associated with the original detrital and depositional conditions. We also identified 4 beds within the Gungri that mark "depositional events" which may correlate to those identified in other PT sections (e.g., Guryul Ravine, Kashmir). Identification of sources of variance allowed us to identify geochemical signatures that can be used for paleooceanographic reconstruction. The Attargoo section records a sequence of discrete events including transient iron-enrichments attributed to euxinic depositional conditions and late diagenetic formation of siderite and regression condensation surfaces associated with pulsed transgression-regression towards the uppermost Permian. Our results show that chemometric analysis of geochemical data enables the resolution of paleoenvironmental conditions in shales impacted by post-depositional alteration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Eugen S.,Sector
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

The goal at the present paper is to present an interface develop for a research program that was develop for a PhD theses. The program simulates a magnetron machine used in industrial coating of the glass sheets. The interface is intended to be used by operators of the machine. An objective of the study is to present the steps needed to develop an interface that is very easy to use and in the same time controls a very complex program. © (2013)Trans Tech Publications,Switzerland. Source

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