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Medicine Lodge, United States

Bhattacharjee R.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | Bhattacharjee R.,University of Chicago | Kheirandish-Gozal L.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | Kaditis A.G.,University of Thessaly | And 2 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2016

Study Objectives: Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is first-line treatment for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with most children having improvements in polysomnography (PSG). However, many children have residual OSA following AT as determined through PSG. Identification of a biomarker of residual disease would be clinically meaningful to detect children at risk. We hypothesize serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is predictive of residual OSA following AT. Methods: PSG was performed both preoperatively and postoperatively on children undergoing AT for the diagnosis of OSA. HsCRP serum concentrations were determined in all children pre-AT, and in most children post-AT. Resolution of OSA after AT was defined by a post-AT apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 1.5/h total sleep time (TST). Residual OSA was defined as a post-AT AHI > 5/h TST, which is considered clinically significant. Results: AT significantly improved the AHI from 15.9 ± 16.4 to 4.1 ± 5.3/h TST in 182 children (P < 0.001). Of 182 children, residual OSA (post-AT AHI > 5) was seen in 46 children (25%). Among children who had hsCRP levels measured pre- And post-AT (n = 155), mean hsCRP levels pre-AT were 0.98 ± 1.91 mg/L and were significantly reduced post-AT (0.63 ± 2.24 mg/dL; P = 0.011). Stratification into post-AT AHI groups corresponding to < 1.5/h TST, 1.5/h TST < AHI < 5/h TST, and AHI > 5/h TST revealed post-AT hsCRP levels of 0.09 ± 0.12, 0.57 ± 2.28, and 1.49 ± 3.34 mg/L with statistical significance emerging comparing residual AHI > 5/h TST compared to post-AT AHI < 1.5/h TST (P = 0.006). Hierarchical multivariate modeling confirmed that pre-AT AHI and post-AT hsCRP levels were most significantly associated with residual OSA. Conclusions: Even though AT improves OSA in most children, residual OSA is frequent. Assessment of post-AT hsCRP levels emerges as a potentially useful biomarker predicting residual OSA. Source

Khalyfa A.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | Carreras A.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | Hakim F.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | Cunningham J.M.,Sections of Pediatric Sleep Medicine | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013

Aims/Hypothesis:Gestational exposures such as dietary changes can alter offspring phenotype through epigenetic modifications and promote increased risk for specific diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) during late gestation would lead increased risk for insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia via associated epigenetic alterations in tissue adipocytokine genes.Methods:Offspring mice of mothers fed a HFD during late gestation (HFDO) were weighed and their food intake measured weekly till age 20 weeks at which time glucose and insulin tolerance tests, plasma lipid and adipocytokine levels were assessed, as well as mRNA expression in visceral fat. Adipocytokine gene methylation levels in visceral fat, liver and muscle were also assayed.Results:HFDO mice had increased weight accrual and food intake, and exhibited insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia, as well as hypoadiponectinemia. Furthermore, increased methylation of adiponectin and leptin receptor, and decreased methylation of leptin genes with unchanged glucagon-like peptide-1 methylation patterns emerged in HFDO mice.Conclusions:Taken together, late gestational HFD induces increased risk of metabolic syndrome in the progeny, which is coupled with hypoadiponectinemia as well as with leptin resistance, and concomitant presence of selective tissue-based epigenetic changes among adipocytokine genes. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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