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Pajevic S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Basser P.J.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics | Fields R.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Conduction time is typically ignored in computational models of neural network function. Here we consider the effects of conduction delays on the synchrony of neuronal activity and neural oscillators, and evaluate the consequences of allowing conduction velocity (CV) to be regulated adaptively. We propose that CV variation, mediated by myelin, could provide an important mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity. Even small changes in CV, resulting from small changes in myelin thickness or nodal structure, could have profound effects on neuronal network function in terms of spike-time arrival, oscillation frequency, oscillator coupling, and propagation of brain waves. For example, a conduction delay of 5. ms could change interactions of two coupled oscillators at the upper end of the gamma frequency range (~100. Hz) from constructive to destructive interference; delays smaller than 1. ms could change the phase by 30°, significantly affecting signal amplitude. Myelin plasticity, as another form of activity-dependent plasticity, is relevant not only to nervous system development but also to complex information processing tasks that involve coupling and synchrony among different brain rhythms. We use coupled oscillator models with time delays to explore the importance of adaptive time delays and adaptive synaptic strengths. The impairment of activity-dependent myelination and the loss of adaptive time delays may contribute to disorders where hyper- and hypo-synchrony of neuronal firing leads to dysfunction (e.g., dyslexia, schizophrenia, epilepsy). © 2013. Source


Chandran P.L.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics | Chandran P.L.,National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering | Horkay F.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2012

Aggrecan is a high-molecular-weight, bottlebrush-shaped, negatively charged biopolymer that forms supermolecular complexes with hyaluronic acid. In the extracellular matrix of cartilage, aggrecan-hyaluronic acid complexes are interspersed in a collagen meshwork and provide the osmotic properties required to resist deswelling under compressive load. In this review we compile aggrecan solution behavior from different experimental techniques, and discuss them in the context of concentration regimes that were identified in osmotic pressure experiments. At low concentrations, aggrecan exhibits microgel-like behavior. With increasing concentration, the bottlebrushes self-assemble into large complexes. In the physiological concentration range (2 < c aggrecan < 8% w/w), the physical properties of the solution are dominated by repulsive electrostatic interactions between aggrecan complexes. We discuss the consequences of the bottlebrush architecture on the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the aggrecan molecule, and its implications for cartilage properties and function. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Komlosh M.E.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics | Ozarslan E.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics | Lizak M.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Horkay F.,Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2011

Double pulsed-field gradient (d-PFG) MRI can provide quantitative maps of microstructural quantities and features within porous media and tissues. We propose and describe a novel MRI phantom, consisting of wafers of highly ordered glass capillary arrays (GCA), and its use to validate and calibrate a d-PFG MRI method to measure and map the local pore diameter. Specifically, we employ d-PFG Spin-Echo Filtered MRI in conjunction with a recently introduced theoretical framework, to estimate a mean pore diameter in each voxel within the imaging volume. This simulation scheme accounts for all diffusion and imaging gradients within the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) sequence, and admits the violation of the short gradient pulse approximation. These diameter maps agree well with pore sizes measured using both optical microscopy and single PFG diffusion diffraction NMR spectroscopy using the same phantom. Pixel-by-pixel analysis shows that the local pore diameter can be mapped precisely and accurately within a specimen using d-PFG MRI. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

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