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Allenstown Elementary School, United States

Klimentidis Y.C.,Section on Statistical Genetics | Mark Beasley T.,Section on Statistical Genetics | Lin H.-Y.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Murati G.,Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

A dramatic rise in obesity has occurred among humans within the last several decades. Little is known about whether similar increases in obesity have occurred in animals inhabiting human-influenced environments. We examined samples collectively consisting of over 20 000 animals from 24 populations (12 divided separately into males and females) of animals representing eight species living with or around humans in industrialized societies. In all populations, the estimated coefficient for the trend of body weight over time was positive (i.e. increasing). The probability of all trends being in the same direction by chance is 1.2 × 10-7. Surprisingly, we find that over the past several decades, average mid-life body weights have risen among primates and rodents living in research colonies, as well as among feral rodents and domestic dogs and cats. The consistency of these findings among animals living in varying environments, suggests the intriguing possibility that the aetiology of increasing body weight may involve several as-of-yet unidentified and/or poorly understood factors (e.g. viral pathogens, epigenetic factors). This finding may eventually enhance the discovery and fuller elucidation of other factors that have contributed to the recent rise in obesity rates. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Frazier-Wood A.C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Aslibekyan S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Borecki I.B.,University of Washington | Hopkins P.N.,University of Utah | And 7 more authors.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics

Objective: A shift towards overall larger very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and smaller low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) diameters occurs in insulin resistance (IR), which reflects shifts in the distribution of the subfraction concentrations. Fenofibrate, indicated for hypertriglyceridemia, simultaneously reduces IR and shifts in lipoprotein diameter. Individual responses to fenofibrate vary, and we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic differences that could contribute to such differences. Methods: Association analysis was conducted between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Affymetrix 6.0 array and fasting particle diameter responses to a 12-week fenofibrate trial, in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. Linear models were conducted, which adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. The top three SNPs associated with each fraction were examined subsequently for associations with changes in subfraction concentrations. Results: SNPs in AHCYL2 and CD36 genes reached, or closely approached, genome-wide levels of significance with VLDL and HDL diameter responses to fenofibrate, respectively (P=4×10 and 8×10). SNPs in AHCYL2 were associated with a decrease in the concentration of the large VLDL subfraction only (P=0.002). SNPs associated with HDL diameter change were not associated with a single subfraction concentration change (P>0.05) indicating small shifts across all subfractions. Conclusion: We report novel associations between lipoprotein diameter responses to fenofibrate and the AHCYL2 and CD36 genes. Previous associations of these genes with IR emphasize the role of IR in mediating lipoprotein response to fenofibrate. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health |Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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