Section on Lipid science

Wake Forest, NC, United States

Section on Lipid science

Wake Forest, NC, United States
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Forrest L.M.,Section on Lipid science | Boudyguina E.,Section on Lipid science | Wilson M.D.,Section on Lipid science | Parks J.S.,Section on Lipid science
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012

Introduction: The anti-atherogenic and hypotriglyceridemic properties of fish oil are attributed to its enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in decreased plasma triglycerides. Objective: We used apoB100 only, LDLrKO mice to investigate whether echium oil reduces atherosclerosis. Methods: Mice were fed palm, echium, or fish oil-containing diets for 16 weeks and plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis were measured. Results: Compared to palm oil, echium oil feeding resulted in significantly less plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis, comparable to that of fish oil. Conclusion: This is the first report that echium oil is anti-atherogenic, suggesting that it may be a botanical alternative to fish oil for atheroprotection. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Huang Y.,Cleveland Clinic | Didonato J.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Levison B.S.,Cleveland Clinic | Schmitt D.,Cleveland Clinic | And 28 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2014

Recent studies have indicated that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and their major structural protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), recovered from human atheroma are dysfunctional and are extensively oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO). In vitro oxidation of either apoA1 or HDL particles by MPO impairs their cholesterol acceptor function. Here, using phage display affinity maturation, we developed a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes both apoA1 and HDL that have been modified by the MPO-H 2 O 2-Cl-system. An oxindolyl alanine (2-OH-Trp) moiety at Trp72 of apoA1 is the immunogenic epitope. Mutagenesis studies confirmed a critical role for apoA1 Trp72 in MPO-mediated inhibition of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity of apoA1 in vitro and in vivo. ApoA1 containing a 2-OH-Trp72 group (oxTrp72-apoA1) is in low abundance within the circulation but accounts for 20% of the apoA1 in atherosclerosis-laden arteries. OxTrp72-apoA1 recovered from human atheroma or plasma is lipid poor, virtually devoid of cholesterol acceptor activity and demonstrated both a potent proinflammatory activity on endothelial cells and an impaired HDL biogenesis activity in vivo. Elevated oxTrp72-apoA1 levels in subjects presenting to a cardiology clinic (n = 627) were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Circulating oxTrp72-apoA1 levels may serve as a way to monitor a proatherogenic process in the artery wall. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.

Bura K.S.,Section on Lipid science | Lord C.,Section on Lipid science | Marshall S.,Section on Lipid science | McDaniel A.,Section on Lipid science | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the non-biliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg). SR-BIhApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BIhApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BIhApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Wilson M.D.,Section on Lipid science | Sawyer J.,Section on Lipid science | Rudel L.L.,Section on Lipid science
Academic Emergency Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: Identifying the likelihood of a patient having coronary artery disease (CAD) at the time of emergency department (ED) presentation with chest pain could reduce the need for stress testing or coronary imaging after myocardial infarction (MI) has been excluded. The authors aimed to determine if a novel cardiac biomarker consisting of plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) levels typically derived from the activity of the enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2) are predictive of CAD in a clinical model. Methods: A single-center prospective cohort design enrolled participants with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) or invasive angiography. Plasma samples were analyzed for CE composition with mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was any CAD determined at angiography. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between the sum of the plasma concentrations from cholesteryl palmitoleate (16:1) and cholesteryl oleate (18:1) (defined as ACAT2-CE) and the presence of CAD. The added value of ACAT2-CE to the model was analyzed comparing the C-statistics and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Results: The study cohort was composed of 113 participants with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age of 49 (±11.7) years, 59% had CAD at angiography, and 23% had an MI within 30 days. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) plasma concentration of ACAT2-CE was 938 lmol/L (IQR = 758 to 1,099 lmol/L) in patients with CAD and 824 lmol/L (IQR = 683 to 998 lmol/L) in patients without CAD (p = 0.03). When considered with age, sex, and the number of conventional CAD risk factors, ACAT2-CE levels were associated with a 6.5% increased odds of having CAD per 10 lmol/L increase in concentration. The addition of ACAT2-CE significantly improved the C-statistic (0.89 vs. 0.95, p = 0.0035) and IDI (0.15, p < 0.001) compared to the reduced model. In the subgroup of low-risk observation unit patients, the CE model had superior discrimination compared to the Diamond-Forrester classification (IDI = 0.403, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Plasma levels of ACAT2-CE have strong potential to predict a patient's likelihood of having CAD when considered in a clinical model but not when used alone. In turn, a clinical model containing ACAT2-CE could reduce the need for cardiac imaging after the exclusion of MI. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

Bi X.,Section on Lipid science | Zhu X.,Section on Lipid science | Gao C.,Section on Lipid science | Shewale S.,Section on Lipid science | And 7 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE - Transplantation studies suggest that bone marrow cell ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 protects against atherosclerosis development. However, the in vivo effect of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression on atherogenesis is not fully understood because bone marrow contains other leukocytes and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Myeloid-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 knockout mice in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout C57BL/6 background were developed to address this question. APPROACH AND RESULTS - Chow-fed myeloid-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 knockout/LDL receptor knockout (double knockout [DKO]) versus LDL receptor knockout (single knockout [SKO]) mice had similar plasma lipid concentrations, but atherogenic diet (AD)-fed DKO mice had reduced plasma very-LDL (VLDL)/LDL concentrations resulting from decreased hepatic VLDL triglyceride secretion. Resident peritoneal macrophages from AD-fed DKO versus SKO mice had significantly higher cholesterol content but similar proinflammatory gene expression. Atherosclerosis extent was similar between genotypes after 10 to 16 weeks of AD but increased modestly in DKO mice by 24 weeks of AD. Lesional macrophage content was similar, likely because of the higher monocyte flux through aortic root lesions in DKO versus SKO mice. After transplantation of DKO or SKO bone marrow into SKO mice and 16 weeks of AD feeding, atherosclerosis extent was similar and plasma apolipoprotein B lipoproteins were reduced in mice receiving DKO bone marrow. When differences in plasma VLDL/LDL concentrations were minimized by maintaining mice on chow for 24 weeks, DKO mice had modest, but significantly more, atherosclerosis compared with SKO mice. CONCLUSIONS - Myeloid cell ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 increases hepatic VLDL triglyceride secretion and plasma VLDL/LDL concentrations in AD-fed LDL receptor knockout mice, offsetting its atheroprotective role in decreasing macrophage cholesterol content, resulting in a minimal increase in atherosclerosis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Koeth R.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Wang Z.,Cleveland Clinic | Levison B.S.,Cleveland Clinic | Buffa J.A.,Cleveland Clinic | And 19 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of l-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma l-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary l-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Liu M.,Section on Lipid science | Chung S.,University of Florida | Shelness G.S.,Section on Lipid science | Parks J.S.,Section on Lipid science
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2012

Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma TG concentrations and a near absence of HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which facilitates the efflux of cellular phospholipid and free cholesterol to assemble with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), forming nascent HDL particles. In this review, we summarize studies focused on the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG production, with particular attention on recent evidence connecting hepatic ABCA1 expression to VLDL, LDL, and HDL metabolism. Silencing ABCA1 in McArdle rat hepatoma cells results in diminished assembly of large (> 10 nm) nascent HDL particles, diminished PI3 kinase activation, and increased secretion of large, TG-enriched VLDL1 particles. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout (HSKO) mice have a similar plasma lipid phenotype as Tangier disease subjects, with a two-fold elevation of plasma VLDL TG, 50% lower LDL, and 80% reduction in HDL concentrations. This lipid phenotype arises from increased hepatic secretion of VLDL1 particles, increased hepatic uptake of plasma LDL by the LDL receptor, elimination of nascent HDL particle assembly by the liver, and hypercatabolism of apoA-I by the kidney. These studies highlight a novel role for hepatic ABCA1 in the metabolism of all three major classes of plasma lipoproteins and provide a metabolic link between elevated TG and reduced HDL levels that are a common feature of Tangier disease, MS, and T2D. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhu X.,Section on Lipid science | Parks J.S.,Section on Lipid science
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2012

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are inversely associated with coronary heart disease due to HDL's ability to transport excess cholesterol in arterial macrophages to the liver for excretion i.e., reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). However, recent advances highlight additional atheroprotective roles for HDL beyond bulk cholesterol removal from cells through RCT. By promoting cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, HDL and its apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoE) decrease plasma membrane FC and lipid raft content in immune and hematopoietic stem cells, decreasing inflammatory and cell proliferation signaling pathways. HDL and apoA-I also dampen inflammatory signaling pathways independent of cellular FC efflux. In addition, HDL lipid and protein cargo provide protection against parasitic and bacterial infection, endothelial damage, and oxidant toxicity. Here, current knowledge is reviewed regarding the role of HDL and its apolipoproteins in regulating cellular cholesterol homeostasis, highlighting recent advances on novel functions and mechanisms by which HDLs regulate inflammation and hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Rong S.,Section on Lipid science | Cao Q.,Section on Rheumatology | Liu M.,Section on Lipid science | Seo J.,Section on Lipid science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2012

12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15LO) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to form bioactive lipid mediators. The role of 12/15LO in atherosclerosis development remains controversial. We evaluated atherosclerosis development and lipid metabolism in 12/15LO-LDL receptor (LDLr) double knockout (DK) vs. LDLr knockout (SK) mice fed a PUFA-enriched diet to enhance production of 12/15LO products. Compared with SK controls, DK mice fed a PUFA-enriched diet had decreased plasma and liver lipid levels, hepatic lipogenic gene expression, VLDL secretion, and aortic atherosclerosis and increased VLDL turnover. Bone marrow transplantation and Kupffer cell ablation studies suggested both circulating leukocytes and Kupffer cells contributed to the lipid phenotype in 12/15LO-deficient mice. Conditioned medium from in vitro incubation of DK vs. SK macrophages reduced triglyceride secretion in McArdle 7777 hepatoma cells. Our results suggest that, in the context of dietary PUFA enrichment, macrophage 12/15LO expression adversely affects plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism, resulting in exacerbated atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

PubMed | University of North Carolina at Greensboro, UNCG and Section on Lipid science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a low level of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases adiposity and increases browning in overweight mice, its dependence on inflammatory signaling and potential synergistic effects of daily exercise. Young, Sv129 male mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to make them fat and glucose intolerant and then switch them to a low-fat diet with or without 0.1% 10,12 CLA, sodium salicylate or exercise for another 7 weeks. 10,12 CLA decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue mass, and increased the messenger RNA and protein levels, and activities of enzymes associated with thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation in WAT. Mice fed 10,12 CLA had lower body temperatures compared to controls during cold exposure, which coincided with decreased adiposity. Although sodium salicylate decreased 10,12 CLA-mediated increases in markers of inflammation in WAT, it did not affect other outcomes. Exercise had no further effect on the outcomes measured. Collectively, these data indicate that 10,12 CLA-mediated reduction of adiposity is independent of inflammatory signaling, and possibly due to up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and heat production in order to regulate body temperature. Although this low level of 10,12 CLA reduced adiposity in overweight mice, hepatomegaly and inflammation are major health concerns.

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