Section on Hematology and Oncology

Wake Forest, NC, United States

Section on Hematology and Oncology

Wake Forest, NC, United States
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Lesser G.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Stark N.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Williford S.,Southeast Cancer Control Consortium | Astrid Garino L.,Metro Minnesota CCOP
Journal of Supportive Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a common antioxidant supplement with known cardioprotective effects and potential anticancer benefits. Objectives We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral CoQ10 in female breast cancer patients with the primary objective of determining CoQ10's effects on self-reported fatigue, depression, and quality of life (QOL). Methods: Eligible women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and planned adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to oral supplements of 300 mg CoQ10 or placebo, each combined with 300 IU vitamin E, divided into 3 daily doses. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks. Blood tests, QOL measures, and levels of plasma CoQ10 and vitamin E were obtained at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Mixed-effects models were used to assess treatment differences in outcomes over time. Results: Between September 2004 and March 2009, 236 women were enrolled. Treatment arms were well balanced with respect to age (range, 28-85 years), pathologic stage (stage 0, 91%; stage I, 8%; stage II, 1%), ethnicity (white, 87%; black, 11%; Hispanic, 2%), and planned therapy. Baseline CoQ10 levels in the CoQ10 and placebo arms were 0.70 and 0.73 μg/mL, respectively; the 24-week CoQ10 levels were 1.83 and 0.79 μg/mL, respectively. There were no significant differences between the CoQ10 and placebo arms at 24 weeks for scores on the Profile of Mood States-Fatigue questionnaire (least squares means, 7.08 vs 8.24, P = .257), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue tool (37.6 vs 37.6, P = .965), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer instrument (111.9 vs 110.4, P = .577), or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (11.6 vs 12.3, P = .632). Conclusions: Supplementation with conventional doses of CoQ10 led to sustained increases in plasma CoQ10 levels but did not result in improved self-reported fatigue or QOL after 24 weeks of treatment. © 2013 Frontline Medical Communications.

Petty W.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Miller A.A.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Bellinger C.,Section on Pulmonology | Weaver K.E.,Medical Center Blvd
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening reduces lung cancer-specific and overall mortality. We sought to assess lung cancer screening practices and attitudes among primary care providers (PCPs) in the era of new LDCT screening guidelines. Methods: In 2013, we surveyed PCPs at an academic medical center (60% response) and assessed: lung cancer screening use, perceived screening effectiveness, knowledge of screening guidelines, perceived barriers to LDCT use, and interest in LDCT screening education. Results: Few PCPs (n = 212) reported ordering lung cancer screening: chest X-ray (21%), LDCT (12%), and sputum cytology (3%). Only 47% of providers knew three or more of six guideline components forLDCT screening;24%did not know any guideline components. In multiple logistic regression analysis, providers who knew three or more guideline components were more likely to order LDCT (OR, 7.1; 95% confidence intervals, 2.0-25.6). Many providers (30%) were unsure of the effectiveness of LDCT. Mammography, colonoscopy, and Pap smear were rated more frequently as effective in reducing cancer mortality compared with LDCT (all P values < 0.0001). Common perceived barriers included patient cost (86.9% major or minor barrier), harm from false positives (82.7%), patients' lack of awareness (81.3%), risk of incidental findings (81.3%), and insurance coverage (80.1%). Conclusions: LDCT lung cancer screening is currently an uncommon practice at an academic medical center. PCPs report ordering chest X-ray, a nonrecommended screening test, more often than LDCT. PCPs had a limited understanding of lung cancer screening guidelines and LDCT effectiveness. Provider educational interventions are needed to facilitate shared decision-making with patients. Impact: This study describes some of the first data available about PCPs' use of lung cancer screening tests since the publication of multiple professional guidelines endorsing LDCT. Knowledge gaps were identified that may hinder the uptake of evidencebased lung cancer screening guidelines. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(4); 664-70. © 2015 AACR.

Liu J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Liu J.,Duke University | Rajani K.,Mayo Medical School | Porosnicu M.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

Oncolytic viruses (OV) preferentially kill cancer cells due in part to defects in their antiviral responses upon exposure to type I interferons (IFNs). However, IFN responsiveness of some tumor cells confers resistance to OV treatment. The human type I IFNs include one IFN-β and multiple IFN-α subtypes that share the same receptor but are capable of differentially inducing biological responses. The role of individual IFN subtypes in promoting tumor cell resistance to OV is addressed here. Two human IFNs which have been produced for clinical use, IFN-α2a and IFN-β, were compared for activity in protecting human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines from oncolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Susceptibility of HNSCC lines to killing by VSV varied. VSV infection induced increased production of IFN-β in resistant HNSCC cells. When added exogenously, IFN-β was significantly more effective at protecting HNSCC cells from VSV oncolysis than was IFN-α2a. In contrast, normal keratinocytes and endothelial cells were protected equivalently by both IFN subtypes. Differential responsiveness of tumor cells to IFN-α and -β was further supported by the finding that autocrine IFN-β but not IFN-α promoted survival of HNSCC cells during persistent VSV infection. Therefore, IFN-α and -β differentially affect VSV oncolysis, justifying the evaluation and comparison of IFN subtypes for use in combination with VSV therapy. Pairing VSV with IFN-α2a may enhance selectivity of oncolytic VSV therapy for HNSCC by inhibiting VSV replication in normal cells without a corresponding inhibition in cancer cells. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

Shaw P.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Reed D.R.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Yeager N.,Ohio State University | Zebrack B.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2015

Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Waller L.L.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Waller L.L.,Wake forest University | Weaver K.E.,Wake forest University | Petty W.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | And 3 more authors.
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2010

Lung carcinoma is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the USA. A significant portion of these patients have a history of tobacco use and many are smoking at the time of diagnosis. Despite smoking cessation interventions, many patients continue to smoke even after their diagnosis. Those who are able to quit smoking after their diagnosis still have a high rate of relapse of smoking within the first year. Continued smoking has been found to have multiple negative consequences for these patients including increased toxicity from treatment and decreased effectiveness of therapy. Overall, patients who continue to smoke after their diagnosis have poorer outcomes than those patients who are successfully able to quit and abstain from smoking. Knowing this, physicians should encourage smoking cessation in this patient population. Future studies are needed to help define the best approach for encouraging smoking cessation, taking into account patient characteristics and the stress associated with the lung cancer diagnosis. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Knovich M.A.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Farland A.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Owen J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2012

Although significant advances in the understanding of TTP pathophysiology have been made in the last 15yr, none have yet impacted the empiric treatment paradigm for this disease for which plasmapheresis is the mainstay. Laboratory assays for ADAMTS13 activity and inhibitors can be used to confirm a clinical diagnosis, but the assays are not routinely used to guide treatment. The routine availability of ADAMTS13 testing has allowed our group to tailor plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive therapy in patients under active treatment for TTP. In addition, the concept of establishing immune tolerance, similar to the eradication of a factor VIII inhibitor in patients with congenital or acquired hemophilia, has emerged as an important strategy to prevent early relapse of TTP. With the expected incorporation of recombinant ADAMTS13 into the treatment algorithm over the next several years, we anticipate that readily available ADAMTS13 testing will play an important role in individualized therapy that incorporates enzyme replacement and establishment of immune tolerance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Cook G.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Pardee T.S.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2013

Animal models have been invaluable in the efforts to better understand and ultimately treat patients suffering from leukemia. While important insights have been gleaned from these models, limitations must be acknowledged. In this review, we will highlight the various animal models of leukemia and describe their contributions to the improved understanding and treatment of these cancers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Miller P.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Farland A.M.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Knovich M.A.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Batt K.M.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Owen J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
American Journal of Hematology | Year: 2014

In January 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an illness associated with intravenous (IV) abuse of oral Opana ER (oxymorphone) in Tennessee. The clinical presentation of this syndrome was reported to resemble that of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in the 15 patients reported; 12 were treated with plasma exchange. We report a similar case series of 15 patients with 18 episodes of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with recent IV abuse of oral Opana ER. In our series, we demonstrate that therapeutic plasma exchange is unnecessary; supportive care and treatment of underlying infections and renal dysfunction (without use of plasma exchange) resulted in clinical improvement in all patients. Thus, it appears that plasma exchange with associated costs and risks can be safely omitted in patients with thrombotic microangiopathy resulting from IV abuse of oral Opana ER. Am. J. Hematol. 89:695-697, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Castellino S.M.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Ullrich N.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Whelen M.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Lange B.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014

Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

Kota G.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumors that closely mimic meningiomas. However, in contrast to meningiomas, HPCs have a relatively high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastases, manifesting the need for sensitive noninvasive methods of detection that efficiently image the entire body. We present a rare case of a right optic nerve sheath HPC in which we identified a previously unknown distant metastasis in the thoracic spine on an 111In-pentetreotide scan. We detail the radiologic characteristics seen with somatostatin receptor imaging, FDG PET, and MRI and discuss how to exploit these findings to detect recurrence and metastatic disease in HPC.

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