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Shaw P.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Reed D.R.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Yeager N.,Ohio State University | Zebrack B.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2015

Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kota G.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumors that closely mimic meningiomas. However, in contrast to meningiomas, HPCs have a relatively high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastases, manifesting the need for sensitive noninvasive methods of detection that efficiently image the entire body. We present a rare case of a right optic nerve sheath HPC in which we identified a previously unknown distant metastasis in the thoracic spine on an 111In-pentetreotide scan. We detail the radiologic characteristics seen with somatostatin receptor imaging, FDG PET, and MRI and discuss how to exploit these findings to detect recurrence and metastatic disease in HPC. Source

Lesser G.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Stark N.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Williford S.,Southeast Cancer Control Consortium | Astrid Garino L.,Metro Minnesota CCOP
Journal of Supportive Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a common antioxidant supplement with known cardioprotective effects and potential anticancer benefits. Objectives We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral CoQ10 in female breast cancer patients with the primary objective of determining CoQ10's effects on self-reported fatigue, depression, and quality of life (QOL). Methods: Eligible women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and planned adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to oral supplements of 300 mg CoQ10 or placebo, each combined with 300 IU vitamin E, divided into 3 daily doses. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks. Blood tests, QOL measures, and levels of plasma CoQ10 and vitamin E were obtained at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Mixed-effects models were used to assess treatment differences in outcomes over time. Results: Between September 2004 and March 2009, 236 women were enrolled. Treatment arms were well balanced with respect to age (range, 28-85 years), pathologic stage (stage 0, 91%; stage I, 8%; stage II, 1%), ethnicity (white, 87%; black, 11%; Hispanic, 2%), and planned therapy. Baseline CoQ10 levels in the CoQ10 and placebo arms were 0.70 and 0.73 μg/mL, respectively; the 24-week CoQ10 levels were 1.83 and 0.79 μg/mL, respectively. There were no significant differences between the CoQ10 and placebo arms at 24 weeks for scores on the Profile of Mood States-Fatigue questionnaire (least squares means, 7.08 vs 8.24, P = .257), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue tool (37.6 vs 37.6, P = .965), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer instrument (111.9 vs 110.4, P = .577), or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (11.6 vs 12.3, P = .632). Conclusions: Supplementation with conventional doses of CoQ10 led to sustained increases in plasma CoQ10 levels but did not result in improved self-reported fatigue or QOL after 24 weeks of treatment. © 2013 Frontline Medical Communications. Source

Petty W.J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Miller A.A.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Bellinger C.,Section on Pulmonology | Weaver K.E.,Medical Center Blvd
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening reduces lung cancer-specific and overall mortality. We sought to assess lung cancer screening practices and attitudes among primary care providers (PCPs) in the era of new LDCT screening guidelines. Methods: In 2013, we surveyed PCPs at an academic medical center (60% response) and assessed: lung cancer screening use, perceived screening effectiveness, knowledge of screening guidelines, perceived barriers to LDCT use, and interest in LDCT screening education. Results: Few PCPs (n = 212) reported ordering lung cancer screening: chest X-ray (21%), LDCT (12%), and sputum cytology (3%). Only 47% of providers knew three or more of six guideline components forLDCT screening;24%did not know any guideline components. In multiple logistic regression analysis, providers who knew three or more guideline components were more likely to order LDCT (OR, 7.1; 95% confidence intervals, 2.0-25.6). Many providers (30%) were unsure of the effectiveness of LDCT. Mammography, colonoscopy, and Pap smear were rated more frequently as effective in reducing cancer mortality compared with LDCT (all P values < 0.0001). Common perceived barriers included patient cost (86.9% major or minor barrier), harm from false positives (82.7%), patients' lack of awareness (81.3%), risk of incidental findings (81.3%), and insurance coverage (80.1%). Conclusions: LDCT lung cancer screening is currently an uncommon practice at an academic medical center. PCPs report ordering chest X-ray, a nonrecommended screening test, more often than LDCT. PCPs had a limited understanding of lung cancer screening guidelines and LDCT effectiveness. Provider educational interventions are needed to facilitate shared decision-making with patients. Impact: This study describes some of the first data available about PCPs' use of lung cancer screening tests since the publication of multiple professional guidelines endorsing LDCT. Knowledge gaps were identified that may hinder the uptake of evidencebased lung cancer screening guidelines. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(4); 664-70. © 2015 AACR. Source

Liu J.,Section on Hematology and Oncology | Liu J.,Duke University | Rajani K.,Mayo Medical School | Porosnicu M.,Section on Hematology and Oncology
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

Oncolytic viruses (OV) preferentially kill cancer cells due in part to defects in their antiviral responses upon exposure to type I interferons (IFNs). However, IFN responsiveness of some tumor cells confers resistance to OV treatment. The human type I IFNs include one IFN-β and multiple IFN-α subtypes that share the same receptor but are capable of differentially inducing biological responses. The role of individual IFN subtypes in promoting tumor cell resistance to OV is addressed here. Two human IFNs which have been produced for clinical use, IFN-α2a and IFN-β, were compared for activity in protecting human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines from oncolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Susceptibility of HNSCC lines to killing by VSV varied. VSV infection induced increased production of IFN-β in resistant HNSCC cells. When added exogenously, IFN-β was significantly more effective at protecting HNSCC cells from VSV oncolysis than was IFN-α2a. In contrast, normal keratinocytes and endothelial cells were protected equivalently by both IFN subtypes. Differential responsiveness of tumor cells to IFN-α and -β was further supported by the finding that autocrine IFN-β but not IFN-α promoted survival of HNSCC cells during persistent VSV infection. Therefore, IFN-α and -β differentially affect VSV oncolysis, justifying the evaluation and comparison of IFN subtypes for use in combination with VSV therapy. Pairing VSV with IFN-α2a may enhance selectivity of oncolytic VSV therapy for HNSCC by inhibiting VSV replication in normal cells without a corresponding inhibition in cancer cells. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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