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Peng Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Su C.-H.,Section of Respiratory Therapy | Muo C.-H.,Data Management | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2015

Objective: We investigated and compared the risk of dementia development in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis (TB). Methods: The study involved 6473 patient with newly diagnosed TB, and each patient was randomly frequency matched with 4 people without TB based on age, sex, and index year. The risk of dementia development was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Among the patients with TB, the overall risk of developing dementia was 1.21-fold significantly higher than the non-TB cohort. In the stratified analysis of dementia risks, only the patients with TB who were male or 50 to 64 years of age exhibited a significantly higher risk of dementia development compared with those without TB. An analysis of the follow-up duration revealed that patients with TB had a 1.78-fold increased risk within 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion: Patients with TB have a significantly higher risk of developing dementia than that of the general population. © The Author(s) 2015.

Huang W.-C.,Mackay Medicine College | Huang W.-C.,National Yang Ming University | Hsu B.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | Kao P.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are the most common agents of diarrhea. Waterborne DEC could pose a potential health risk to human through agricultural, household, recreational, and industrial use. There are few published reports on the detection of DEC and its seasonal distribution in aquatic environments. The presence of DEC in different types of aquatic environments was investigated in this study. Water samples were collected from major rivers, water reservoirs, and recreational hot springs throughout Taiwan. Moreover, an intensive water sampling plan was carried out along Puzih River. The detection of DEC target genes was used to determine the presence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among the 383 water samples analyzed, DEC was found in 122 (31.8%) samples. The detection rate varied by genotype, raging from 3.6% for STEC to 17.2% for EPEC. The DEC detection rate was higher from river waters than reservoirs and hot springs. In addition, DEC was detected at a higher rate in spring and summer. The presence of EPEC was significantly associated with total coliform levels among hot spring samples. Moreover, the presence of ETEC in river water samples was associated with heterotrophic plate counts. Water with EPEC differed significantly in pH from Puzih River samples. These results suggest that seasonal characteristics may affect the presence of DEC in different aquatic environments, and water quality indicators may be indicative of the presence of DEC. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Hsu T.-K.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Hsu T.-K.,National Chung Cheng University | Wu S.-F.,National Chung Cheng University | Hsu B.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | And 6 more authors.
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2015

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are potential reservoirs of Legionella in aquatic environments. However, the parasitic relationship between various Legionella and amoebae remains unclear. In this study, surface water samples were gathered from two rivers for evaluating parasitic Legionella. Warmer water temperature is critical to the existence of Legionella. This result suggests that amoebae may be helpful in maintaining Legionella in natural environments because warmer temperatures could enhance parasitisation of Legionella in amoebae. We next used immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to identify extracellular Legionella and remove most free Legionella before detecting the parasitic ones in selectively enriched amoebae. Legionella pneumophila was detected in all the approaches, confirming that the pathogen is a facultative amoebae parasite. By contrast, two obligate amoebae parasites, Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) 8 and 9, were detected only in enriched amoebae. However, several uncultured Legionella were detected only in the extracellular samples. Because the presence of potential hosts, namely Vermamoeba vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria gruberi, was confirmed in the samples that contained intracellular Legionella, uncultured Legionella may survive independently of amoebae. Immunomagnetic separation and amoebae enrichment may have referential value for detecting parasitic Legionella in surface waters. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Tao C.-W.,Section of Respiratory Therapy | Hsu B.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | Kao P.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | Huang W.-C.,Mackay Medicine College | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

In this study, the seasonal difference and the observable presence/absence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in the Puzih River basin in Taiwan was investigated. A total of 288 water samples were collected from 24 sites from March 2014 to February 2015. Human AdV analysis of sample was subjected to viral concentration using a GN-6 Metricel® filter, followed by DNA extraction, nested-PCR, and qPCR. Human AdV was detected in 34.3 % (99/288) of the entire river water sample. A higher percentage of HAdV (76.4 %) was obtained during the winter. The HAdV median concentration was relatively high in fall (1.4 × 103 copies/L) and winter (2.8 × 103 copies/L). Significant difference and correlation were found between the seasonal variation of HAdV and water quality parameters, including heterotrophic plate count, total coliform, water temperature, and turbidity. The most frequently identified HAdV (subgenus F) serotype was 41. Human AdV-41 is the main cause of gastroenteritis and should be considered for associated human health risk potential in the Puzih River basin. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Tao C.-W.,Section of Respiratory Therapy | Hsu B.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | Ji W.-T.,National Chung Cheng University | Hsu T.-K.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Antibiotics are widely used in livestock for infection treatment and growth promotion. Wastes from animal husbandry are a potential environmental source of antibiotic-insensitive pathogens, and the removal efficiency of the resistance genotypes in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unknown. In this study, quantitative PCR was used for evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes. Six wastewater treatment plants in different swine farms were included in this study, and five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were tested for each treatment procedure. All of the tested ARGs including tetA, tetW, sulI, sulII, and blaTEM genes were detected in six swine farms with considerable amounts. The results showed that antibiotic resistance is prevalent in livestock farming. The ARG levels were varied by wastewater treatment procedure, frequently with the highest level at anaerobic treatment tank and lowest in the activated sludge unit and the effluents. After normalizing the ARG levels to 16S rRNA gene copies, the results showed that ARGs in WWTP units fluctuated partly with the quantity of bacteria. Regardless of its importance in biodegradation, the anaerobic procedure may facilitate bacterial growth thus increasing the sustainability of the antibiotic resistance genotypes. After comparing the copy numbers in influx and efflux samples, the mean removal efficiency of ARGs ranged between 33.30 and 97.56%. The results suggested that treatments in the WWTP could partially reduce the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and additional procedures such as sedimentation may not critically affect the removal efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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