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Topp M.,Section of Respiratory Medicine | Vestbo J.,NHS England | Mortensen E.L.,Copenhagen University
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | Year: 2016

Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Nardini S.,Pulmonary and TB Unit | Camiciottoli G.,Section of Respiratory Medicine | Locicero S.,Pneumotisiology | Maselli R.,University of Catanzaro | And 6 more authors.
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

The most recent guidelines define COPD in a multidimensional way, nevertheless the diagnosis is still linked to the limitation of airflow, usually measured by the reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio below 70%. However, the severity of obstruction is not directly correlated to symptoms or to invalidity determined by COPD. Thus, besides respiratory function, COPD should be evaluated based on symptoms, frequency and severity of exacerbations, patient's functional status and health related quality of life (HRQoL). Therapy is mainly aimed at increasing exercise tolerance and reducing dyspnea, with improvement of daily activities and HRQoL. This can be accomplished by a drug-induced reduction of pulmonary hyperinflation and exacerbations frequency and severity. All guidelines recommend bronchodilators as baseline therapy for all stages of COPD, and long-acting inhaled bronchodilators, both beta-2 agonist (LABA) and antimuscarinic (LAMA) drugs, are the most effective in regular treatment in the clinically stable phase. The effectiveness of bronchodilators should be evaluated in terms of functional (relief of bronchial obstruction and pulmonary hyperinflation), symptomatic (exercise tolerance and HRQoL), and clinical improvement (reduction in number or severity of exacerbations), while the absence of a spirometric response is not a reason for interrupting treatment, if there is subjective improvement in symptoms. Because LABA and LAMA act via different mechanisms of action, when administered in combination they can exert additional effects, thus optimizing (i.e. maximizing) sustained bronchodilation in COPD patients with severe airflow limitation, who cannot benefit (or can get only partial benefit) by therapy with a single bronchodilator. Recently, a fixed combination of ultra LABA/LAMA (indacaterol/glycopyrronium) has shown that it is possible to get a stable and persistent bronchodilation, which can help in avoiding undesirable fluctuations of bronchial calibre. © 2014 Nardini et al.

Kam K.,Section of Respiratory Medicine | McConnell A.,University of Saskatchewan
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: It is recommended that household contacts of children with cystic fibrosis and household contacts of children <2 years of age receive annual influenza vaccinations. There is little information documenting whether this recommendation is being followed. METHODS: A 20-question survey was distributed to caregivers of children with cystic fibrosis and to caregivers of healthy children <17 years of age seen in a Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) tertiary care centre. Survey questions addressed the influenza vaccination status of the child and household contacts. Respondents were also asked to rate the influence of various factors on the decision to vaccinate, using a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Reported vaccination rates were 21%, 25% and 7% among household contacts of children with cystic fibrosis, children <2 years of age and children ≥2 years of age, respectively. Advice from their physician, belief that they were too healthy, and inconvenient times and locations of vaccination centres were significant influences when compared among the three groups. Other main deterrents to vaccination were belief that the vaccine does not prevent influenza and belief that its side effects are greater than its benefits. CONCLUSION: By understanding motivators and barriers to vaccination among household contacts of children with cystic fibrosis, effective strategies may be implemented to improve vaccination coverage against influenza. Strong recommendations by clinicians and improved access to vaccination centres are essential components in improving influenza vaccination coverage. ©2013 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Santamaria F.,University of Naples Federico II | Montella S.,University of Naples Federico II | Greco L.,University of Naples Federico II | Valerio G.,Parthenope University of Naples | And 8 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2011

Obesity is associated with pulmonary function disturbances. We hypothesized that lung function decreases with increasing duration of obesity. We evaluated pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 188 nonsmoking subjects with primary obesity (aged 8-76 years; 36% with systemic hypertension). Duration of obesity was assessed by questionnaire in adults, and by height and weight growth patterns in children. Asthma and/or other allergic diseases were investigated by standardized questionnaires. BMI and BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) were 38.7 and 2.4kg/m 2, respectively. Forty-six percent of patients were atopic. Among subjects with ever asthma (33%), 20 had current asthma (11% of the total). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1s, total lung capacity (TLC), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were 103, 104, 95, and 76% predicted, respectively. Mean duration of obesity was 8.3 years. Compared with subjects who had been obese for 5 years, patients who had been obese for >15 years had significantly lower values on PFTs (P≤0.05). In subjects with systemic hypertension, PFTs were lower than in patients without hypertension (P≤0.01). Duration of obesity was significantly related to all PFTs (P≤0.001). In a multiple regression analysis where duration and severity of obesity, hypertension, atopy, asthma, and family history of atopic diseases were independent variables, duration of obesity was a predictor of lower PFTs (P≤0.01). Of the remaining variables, only hypertension contributed to lower lung volumes. In obese individuals, lung function was significantly lower in subjects with greater years of obesity. Fat loss programs should be encouraged to prevent late pulmonary function impairment. © 2011 The Obesity Society.

Maniscalco M.,Section of Respiratory Medicine | Pelaia G.,University of Catanzaro | Sofia M.,University of Naples Federico II
Biomarkers in Medicine | Year: 2013

The use of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) in sinonasal disease has recently been advocated as a potential tool to explore upper inflammatory airway disease. However, it is currently hampered by some factors including the wide range of measurement methods, the presence of various confounding factors and the heterogeneity of the study population. The contribution of nasal airway and paranasal sinuses communicating with the nose through the ostia represents the main confounding factor. There is accumulating evidence that nasal humming (which is the production of a tone without opening the lips or forming words) during nNO measurement increases nNO levels due to a rapid gas exchange in the paranasal sinuses. The aim of this review is to discuss the basic concepts and clinical applications of nNO assessment during humming, which represents a simple and noninvasive method to approach sinonasal disease. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

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