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Indian Hills Cherokee Section, United States

Pannucci C.J.,Section of Plastic Surgery | Laird S.,Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative | Campbell D.A.,University of Michigan | Henke P.K.,Section of Vascular Surgery | Henke P.K.,University of Michigan

Background: VTE is the proximate cause of 100,000 deaths in the United States each year. Perioperative VTE risk among surgical patients varies by 20-fold, which highlights the importance of risk stratification to identify high-risk patients, in whom chemoprophylaxis can decrease VTE risk, and low-risk patients, for whom the risk-benefi t relationship of prophylaxis may be unfavorable. Methods: We used data from a statewide surgical quality collaborative for surgical procedures performed between 2010 and 2012. Regression-based techniques identifi ed predictors of 90-day VTE while adjusting for procedural complexity and comorbid conditions. A weighted risk index was created and was validated subsequently in a separate, independent dataset. Results: Data were available for 10,344 patients, who were allocated randomly to a derivation or validation cohort. The 90-day VTE rate was 1.4%; 66.2% of the derivation cohort and 65.5% of the validation cohort received chemoprophylaxis. Seven risk factors were incorporated into a weighted risk index: personal history of VTE, current cancer, sepsis/septic shock/systemic infl ammatory response syndrome, age ≥ 60 years, BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 , male sex, and family history of VTE. Prediction for 90-day VTE was similar in the derivation and validation cohorts (areas under the receiver operator curve, 0.72 and 0.70, respectively). An 18-fold variation in 90-day VTE rate was identified. Conclusions: A weighted risk index quantifi es 90-day VTE risk among surgical patients and identifies an 18-fold variation in VTE risk among the overall surgical population. © 2014 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

Lee S.,University of Southern California | Reichert H.,Center for Statistical Consultation and Research | Kim H.M.,Center for Statistical Consultation and Research | Steggerda J.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons

BACKGROUND: Digital amputation in children is a very strong indication for replantation, but little is known about the epidemiology and distribution of care for pediatric finger amputation injuries in the United States. The specific aims of this study were to examine trends in the surgical management of pediatric finger amputation injuries in the United States from 2000 to 2006, and to identify potential treatment disparities among various demographic groups. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the 2000, 2003, and 2006 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database were used to identify discharge records containing at least one ICD-9-CM procedure code corresponding to digit amputation or replantation. National estimates were generated using weighted frequency calculations, and a weighted logistic regression model was used to examine the influence of various demographic factors on treatment. RESULTS: There were 1,321 weighted discharge records that satisfied our inclusion criteria. From 2000 to 2006, the rate of attempted digit replantation for pediatric finger amputation injuries has remained stable at approximately 40%. The majority of injuries were treated at nonchildren's (86%) and teaching (76%) hospitals; 52% of digit replantations were performed at hospitals with a volume of 1 to 2 digit replantations per year. We found that blacks (odds ratio [OR] 0.47), Hispanics (OR 0.37), and children without insurance (OR 0.38) were less likely to receive attempted replantation (all p < 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of pediatric digit amputation injuries managed by replantation remained stable between 2000 and 2006. Whites and children with private health insurance were more likely to receive replantation than blacks, Hispanics, and children without health insurance, even after controlling for confounding factors. © 2011 by the American College of Surgeons. Source

Burke J.F.,Center for Clinical Management and Research | Stulc J.L.,Section of Plastic Surgery | Skolarus L.E.,Stroke Program | Sears E.D.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.

Objective: To explore whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a risk factor for subsequent ischemic stroke. Methods: Patients with any emergency department visit or hospitalization for TBI (exposed group) or non-TBI trauma (control) based on statewide emergency department and inpatient databases in California from 2005 to 2009 were included in a retrospective cohort. TBI was defined using the Centers for Disease Control definition. Our primary outcome was subsequent hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke. The association between TBI and stroke was estimated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, comorbidities, trauma severity, and trauma mechanism. Results: The cohort included a total of 1,173,353 trauma subjects, 436,630 (37%) with TBI. The patients with TBI were slightly younger than the controls (mean age 49.2 vs 50.3 years), less likely to be female (46.8%vs 49.3%), and had a higher mean injury severity score (4.6 vs 4.1). Subsequent stroke was identified in 1.1%of the TBI group and 0.9%of the control group over a median followup period of 28 months (interquartile range 14-44). After adjustment, TBI was independently associated with subsequent ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.36). Conclusions: In this large cohort, TBI is associated with ischemic stroke, independent of other major predictors. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source

Palmer M.L.,University of Michigan | Van Der Meulen J.H.,Section of Plastic Surgery | Renoux A.,Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Kostrominova T.Y.,Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Michele D.E.,Molecular and Integrative Physiology
Journal of Physiology

The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) provides an essential link from the muscle fibre cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In dystrophic humans and mdx mice, mutations in the dystrophin gene disrupt the structure of the DGC causing severe damage to muscle fibres. In frog muscles, transmission of force laterally from an activated fibre to the muscle surface occurs without attenuation, but lateral transmission of force has not been demonstrated in mammalian muscles. A unique 'yoke' apparatus was developed that attached to the epimysium of muscles midway between the tendons and enabled the measurement of lateral force. We now report that in muscles of young wild-type (WT) mice and rats, compared over a wide range of longitudinal forces, forces transmitted laterally showed little or no decrement. In contrast, for muscles of mdx mice and very old rats, forces transmitted laterally were impaired severely. Muscles of both mdx mice and very old rats showed major reductions in the expression of dystrophin. We conclude that during contractions, forces developed by skeletal muscles of young WT mice and rats are transmitted laterally from fibre to fibre through the DGC without decrement. In contrast, in muscles of dystrophic or very old animals, disruptions in DGC structure and function impair lateral transmission of force causing instability and increased susceptibility of fibres to contraction-induced injury. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The Physiological Society. Source

Aliu O.,University of Michigan | Auger K.A.,United Medical Systems | Sun G.H.,Partnership for Health Analytic Research LLC | Chung K.C.,Section of Plastic Surgery | And 2 more authors.
Medical Care

Background: Critics argue that expanding health insurance coverage through Medicaid may not result in improved access to care. The Affordable Care Act provides reimbursement incentives aimed at improving access to primary care services for new Medicaid beneficiaries; however, there are no such incentives for specialty services. Using the natural experiment of Medicaid expansion in New York (NY) State in October 2001, we examined whether Medicaid expansion increased access to common musculoskeletal procedures for Medicaid beneficiaries. METHODS: From the State Inpatient Database for NY State, we identified 19-to 64-year-old patients who underwent lower extremity large joint replacement, spine procedures, and upper/lower extremity fracture/dislocation repair from January 1998 to December 2006. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the association between Medicaid expansion and trends in the relative and absolute number of Medicaid beneficiaries who underwent these musculoskeletal procedures. Results: Before Medicaid expansion, we observed a slight but steady temporal decline in the proportion of musculoskeletal surgical patients who were Medicaid beneficiaries. After expansion, this trend reversed, and by 5 years after Medicaid expansion, the proportion of musculoskeletal surgical patients who were Medicaid beneficiaries was 4.7 percentage points [95% confidence interval, 3.9-5.5] higher than expected, based on the preexpansion time trend. CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansion in NY State significantly improved access to common musculoskeletal procedures for Medicaid beneficiaries. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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