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Nicholson L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Schwirian P.M.,Ohio State University | Klein E.G.,Ohio State University | Murray-Johnson L.,Ohio State University | And 4 more authors.
Contemporary Clinical Trials | Year: 2011

Background: Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose: To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods: We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the 'MOMS' Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The 'multilayered' approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results: Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive. Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6. months and 12. months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions: Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. © 2010. Source

French G.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Nicholson L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Murray-Johnson L.,Ohio State University | Sternstein A.,Center for Healthy Weight and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 anticipatory guidance styles (maternal focused [MOMS] and infant focused [Ounce of Prevention]) directed at mothers of infants aged newborn to 6 months on their infant feeding behaviors at 1 year compared with routine advice as outlined in Bright Futures (BF). METHODS: This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 292 mother/infant dyads were enrolled at their first well-child visit to 3 urban pediatric clinics in Columbus, Ohio. Intervention-specific brief advice and 1-page handouts were given at each well visit. In addition to infant weights and lengths, surveys about eating habits and infant feeding practices were completed at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: Baseline data revealed a group with high rates of maternal overweight (62%) and obesogenic habits. At 12 months, the maternalfocused group gave their infants less juice (8.97 oz vs 14.37 oz, P < .05), and more daily servings of fruit (1.40 vs 0.94, P < .05) and vegetables (1.41 vs 1.03, P < .05) compared with BF mothers. Ounce of Prevention mothers also gave less juice (9.3 oz, P < .05) and more fruit servings (1.26 P < .05) than BF. CONCLUSIONS: Brief specific interventions added to well-child care may affect obesogenic infant feeding behaviors of mothers and deserves further study as an inexpensive approach to preventing childhood obesity. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Nicholson L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Schwirian P.M.,Ohio State University | Groner J.A.,Section of Ambulatory Pediatrics
Contemporary Clinical Trials | Year: 2015

More than 20years have passed since the NIH 1993 Act was initiated, and while progress has been made toward better representation of minorities and women in clinical research studies, as this review will show, there is still tremendous room for improvement. The purpose of this review was to identify the current state of literature on recruitment and retention strategies in clinical studies of low-income and minority populations. We identified 165 studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Data extracted included information on the study type (descriptive or analytical), study design, study focus (recruitment, retention, both recruitment and retention), health outcome, specific minority group, special population or age group, if specific recruitment/retention techniques were tested, and key research findings. Particular attention was given to articles that statistically analyzed the effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies on enrollment/retention rates. Effective recruitment and retention strategies for low-income and minority groups, differential effectiveness across groups, and implications for future research are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kopp B.T.,Section of Pediatric Pulmonology | Sarzynski L.,Pediatrics | Khalfoun S.,Pediatrics | Hayes D.,Jr. | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Pulmonology | Year: 2015

Rationale: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has deleterious respiratory, immune, and nutritional effects in children, but there is little data regarding the effects of SHS exposure in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF).Methods: A retrospective chart review was undertaken from 2008 to 2012 of 75 infants with CF. Growth, lung function, Chest CT imaging, and microbiologic characteristics were compared between 4 and 12 months for SHS and non-SHS exposed patients.Results: SHS exposed infants with CF had decreased growth between 4 and 12 months compared to non-SHS exposed infants. SHS exposure was associated with increased bronchodilator responsiveness and air trapping, but no other lung function or radiologic differences. SHS exposure was also associated with increased methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anaerobic growth on respiratory culture. There was no difference in Pseudomonas aeruginosa between groups. There were no differences in antibiotic use or hospitalizations between the groups.Conclusions: SHS exposure in CF infants is associated with diminished growth, increased air trapping and bronchodilator responsiveness, and propensity to culture MRSA and facultative anaerobic bacteria, suggesting the need for early, aggressive parental smoking cessation interventions to prevent SHS exposure complications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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