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Martinez A.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Sanchez-Valverde F.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Gil F.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Clerigue N.,Section of Pediatric Emergencies | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acquired methemoglobinemia (MHb) induced in infants by intake of vegetables is a condition uncommonly reported in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to study new vegetables involved and other epidemiological risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases of diet-induced MHb seen in Pamplona from 1987 to 2010 are reported. Infant characteristics were collected, and a case-control study was conducted using as controls 78 age- and sex-matched infants selected at the same geographic area. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to detect factors involved in MHb occurrence. Nitrate levels were tested in natural vegetables used to prepare purées. RESULTS: A clear relation was found between MHb and use of borage (Borago officinalis) (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.1-24.6) and maybe chard (Beta vulgaris var cicla) (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.4-8.7), time from preparation to use (OR 17.4, 95% CI 3.5-86.3 if the purée had been prepared 24-48 hours before and OR 24.9, 95% CI 3.3-187.6 if prepared >48 hours before), and breast-feeding (OR 10.4; 95% CI 1.9-57.2). Tests confirmed that vegetables with the highest nitrate levels were borage (n = 15), with mean nitrate levels of 3968 mg/kg, and chard (n = 17), with mean levels of 2811 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The main associated factors were shown to be time from purée preparation to use (>24 hours), use of certain vegetables (borage and chard), and breast-feeding. Nitrate levels in both vegetables implicated as etiological factors in acquired MHb are high. Copyright © 2013 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Source


Septer S.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Cuffari C.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Attard T.M.,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Attard T.M.,University of Malta
Diseases of the Esophagus | Year: 2014

Esophageal polyps are uncommon findings in pediatric patients, and reports have been limited to case reports. Esophageal polyps have been previously ascribed to esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux, medications, infections and recurrent vomiting. They have been associated with underlying conditions such as hiatal hernia, Barrett's esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis and Crohn's disease. Presenting complaints of children with esophageal polyps have included vomiting, dysphagia, hematemesis and abdominal pain. The aim of this paper is to characterize the incidence, clinical presentation and progression, histologic subtypes and associated mucosal abnormalities in children with esophageal polyps. A retrospective multicenter study was performed at four institutions identifying diagnosis of esophageal polyps in pediatric patients (<21 years). Information was obtained from patient charts, endoscopy reports and histopathology reports. Specimens and slides were examined by experienced pediatric pathologists for all included cases. Esophageal polyps were identified in 13 patients (9M) from 9438 esophagogastroduodenoscopies (0.14%). Mean age of subjects was 9.2 years. Vomiting was the most common indication for endoscopy. Polyp location was at the gastroesophageal junction in 7 of the 13 cases. Most polyps were inflammatory (n = 7). Esophagitis was noted in 69% of those with esophageal polyps. Repeat endoscopies in six patients at a mean interval of 8 months noted persistence of polyps in all six patients. This paper is the first to characterize esophageal polyps in pediatrics. These polyps are rare in children and often are associated with esophagitis. Presenting complaints seem to vary by age. Polyps did not consistently change with either time or acid suppression. The optimal management strategy has yet to be defined and likely depends on the underlying pathophysiologic process. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. Source

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