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Fine S.W.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Amin M.B.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Berney D.M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Bjartell A.,Skane University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2012

Context: The diagnosis of and reporting parameters for prostate cancer (PCa) have evolved over time, yet they remain key components in predicting clinical outcomes. Objective: Update pathology reporting standards for PCa. Evidence acquisition: A thorough literature review was performed for articles discussing PCa handling, grading, staging, and reporting published as of September 15, 2011. Electronic articles published ahead of print were also considered. Proceedings of recent international conferences addressing these areas were extensively reviewed. Evidence synthesis: Two main areas of reporting were examined: (1) prostatic needle biopsy, including handling, contemporary Gleason grading, extent of involvement, and high-risk lesions/precursors and (2) radical prostatectomy (RP), including sectioning, multifocality, Gleason grading, staging of organ-confined and extraprostatic disease, lymph node involvement, tumor volume, and lymphovascular invasion. For each category, consensus views, controversial areas, and clinical import were reviewed. Conclusions: Modern prostate needle biopsy and RP reports are extremely detailed so as to maximize clinical utility. Accurate diagnosis of cancer-specific features requires up-to-date knowledge of grading, quantitation, and staging criteria. While some areas remain controversial, efforts to codify existing knowledge have had a significant impact on pathology practice. © 2012 European Association of Urology. Source

Filosa A.,Section of Pathological Anatomy | Filosa G.,Carlo Urbani Hospital Area Vasta 2
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia | Year: 2015

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common keratinocytederived precancerous lesion in humans; they can be observed predominantly in fair-skinned individuals on sun-exposed surfaces. The primary risk factor for AKs is cumulative UV exposure from sunlight and/or tanning salons. AKs may present on a patient as a few detectable lesions. In addition to these, there are subclinical (invisible) AKs that are estimated to occur up to 10 times more often than visible AKs, since unprotected skin receives UV radiation from the sun. Clinical and subclinical AK lesions occurring in photo-damaged skin are called field cancerization. A field of change can be up to 7 cm around the primary lesions, resulting in lesions that are genetically similar. AKs are defined at the histologic level by dysplasia and consist of keratinocytes manifesting atypical nuclei that are enlarged, irregular, and hyperchromatic. The histopathologic changes noted in keratinocytic proliferative lesions involve disturbance of normal surface maturation. The degree and extent of keratinocytic atypia vary in these lesions. The atypical keratinocytes show enlarged nuclei with hyperchromasia, dyskeratosis and mitoses in any layer of the epidermis. In lesions of epidermal dysplasias, surface keratinocytic maturation is present, and a granular cell layer is usually noted. In intraepidermal carcinomas, there is full-thickness involvement of the epidermis by the atypical keratinocytes. While molecular techniques have improved our ability to distinguish squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from AKs, they have also reinforced the concept that non-melanoma skin cancers arise through a complex series of aberrations at the molecular level. AKs represent a spectrum along the continuum to invasive cancer. They are the most visible manifestation of field cancerization which creates a population of atypical cells with the potential to progress to invasive malignancy capable of metastasis. As the perilesional epithelium also has abnormalities due to photo exposure, understanding the existence of a "cancerization field" should be explained to the patients, reinforcing the importance of preventive clinical follow-up. The aim of the present review was to emphasize the histopathological aspect of the morphological spectrum in AK, and SCCs, also elucidating the clinicopathology of field canceriziation. Source

Morgado J.M.,Institute Estudios Of Mastocitosis Of Castilla La Mancha | Perbellini O.,Section of Haematology | Johnson R.C.,Stanford University | Teodosio C.,Red Espanola de Mastocitosis | And 19 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2013

Aims: CD30 expression by bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MC) has been reported recently in systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of CD30 expression in SM as assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry. Methods and results: A total of 163 consecutive BM samples corresponding to 142 SM patients and 21 non-mastocytosis cases were studied. CD30 was positive in most SM patients (80%), but in only one non-mastocytosis case (4.8%). When combined with CD25, CD30 contributed to an improved accuracy over that of CD25 alone (98% versus 93%) mainly because most (eight of nine) of the well-differentiated SM (WDSM), who lacked CD25, were CD30+. Similar levels of expression of CD30 were observed among all different subgroups of SM except mast cell leukaemia; among indolent SM (ISM) patients, no significant association was observed between the levels of CD30 expression and other clinical and biological features of the disease. Conclusions: The increased expression of CD30 associated with absence of CD25 contributes to the diagnosis of WDSM and its distinction from other subtypes of SM. By contrast, CD30 expression did not contribute either to prognostic stratification of ISM or to the differential diagnosis between ISM and aggressive SM cases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Santoro A.,University of Foggia | Pannone G.,University of Foggia | Errico M.E.,Section of Pathological Anatomy | Bifano D.,Section of Pathological Anatomy | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Histochemistry | Year: 2012

Beta-catenin is a major protein in the Wnt signalling pathway. Although it has been studied in various types of carcinoma, little is known about its expression in mesenchymal tumours. In this study 41 specimens of a variety of mesenchymal childhood tumours were compared to 24 samples of the corresponding adult tumours to assess the diagnostic value of nuclear β-catenin expression using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Similar to adult sarcoma and fibromatosis, β- catenin was not expressed in the majority of childhood sarcomas, and its nuclear translocation was detected in paediatric fibromatosis; non-negligible levels of nuclear staining in other tumour types demonstrate Wnt pathway activation in mesenchymal neoplasms of childhood and adolescence. ©Copyright A. Santoro et al., 2012. Source

Santoni M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Santini D.,Biomedical University of Rome | Massari F.,University of Verona | Conti A.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 6 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2014

Metastatic disease occurs in a significant percentage of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is usually associated with an overall poor prognosis. However, not all of the sites of metastases seem to have the same prognostic significance in patients receiving targeted agents. Indeed, patients with lung-only metastases seem to present a better survival than patients with other sites, whereas liver and bone metastases are associated with a worst prognosis. Some clinical studies suggest that metastatic sites are more responsive than primary tumors. This event may be due to intratumor heterogeneity in terms of somatic mutations, chromosome aberrations, and tumor gene expression, primarily centered around Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) pathway, such as VHL mutations, HIF levels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms, and VEGF receptor levels. Nevertheless, these data do not completely explain the discordant biological behavior between primary tumor and metastatic sites. Understanding the causes of this discordance will have profound consequences on translational research and clinical trials in RCC. In this review, we overview current data on the differences between primary RCC and metastases in terms of drug target expression and clinical/radiological response to targeted agents, thus describing the prognostic role of different metastatic sites in RCC patients. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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