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Marchetti A.,University of Chieti Pescara | Ardizzoni A.,University of Parma | Papotti M.,University of Turin | Crino L.,Perugia Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013

INTRODUCTION: Recent clinical trials led to the approval of crizotinib (PF-02341066; Pfizer) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations. The European Medicines Agency accepted the regulatory submission of crizotinib for the treatment of these patients. Therefore, ALK gene testing has become mandatory to choose the most appropriate therapy. METHODS: To help physicians, involved in the management of NSCLC patients to be treated with ALK inhibitors in Italy, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytopathology identified a large panel of Italian medical oncologists and pathologists that outlined recommendations for ALK testing in NSCLC patients. RESULTS: The guidelines produced include specific information on the target patient population, the biological material for molecular analysis, a section dedicated to the histocytopathologic diagnosis of NSCLC, and the methods for the assessment of ALK alterations that are summarized in this article. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathologic recommendations were produced to guide the management of NSCLC patients who need to be tested for ALK rearrangements before treatment with ALK inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Moch H.,University of Zurich | Blank P.R.,University of Zurich | Dietel M.,University Hospital Charite | Elmberger G.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2012

In February 2011, a group of pathologists from different departments in Europe met in Zurich, Switzerland, to discuss opportunities and challenges for pathology in the era of personalized medicine. The major topics of the meeting were assessment of the role of pathology in personalized medicine, its future profile among other biomedical disciplines with an interest in personalized medicine as well as the evolution of companion diagnostics. The relevance of novel technologies for genome analysis in clinical practice was discussed. The participants recognize that there should bemore initiatives taken by the pathology community in companion diagnostics and in the emerging field of next-generation sequencing and whole genome analysis. The common view of the participants was that the pathology community has to be mobilized for stronger engagement in the future of personalized medicine. Pathologists should be aware of the challenges and the analytical opportunities of the new technologies. Challenges of clinical trial design as well as insurance and reimbursement questions were addressed. The pathology community has the responsibility to lead medical colleagues into embracing this new area of genomic medicine. Without this effort, the discipline of pathology risks losing its key position in molecular tissue diagnostics. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Pelosi G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Pelosi G.,University of Milan | Fabbri A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Bianchi F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2012

Introduction: Diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer on biopsy/cellblock samples by morphology may be demanding. As sparing material for molecular testing is mandatory, a minimalist immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based diagnostic approach is warranted by means of novel, reliable, and easy-to-assess biomarkers. Methods: Forty-six consecutive biopsy/cellblock samples and the corresponding resection specimens (as the gold standard for morphology and IHC) from 30 adenocarcinomas (AD), 10 squamous carcinomas (SQC), 5 adenosquamous carcinomas (ADSQC), and 1 sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) were IHC-evaluated for p40 [corresponding to nontransactivating ΔNp63 isoforms] and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) by semiquantitative assessment. For p40, also immunodecoration intensity was taken into account and dichotomized as strong or low. Results: Nonrandom and overlapping distributions of the relevant markers were found in biopsy/cellblock and surgical specimens, which closely correlated with each other and the diverse tumor categories, with no differences in area under curve-receiver-operating-characteristic curves for each marker between any two samples, including p40 and p63. Diagnostic combinations were p40-/TTF1+ or TTF1- for AD (where p40 was negative, apart from 5/30 AD showing at the best 1-2% tumor cells with low intensity); p40+/TTF1- (p40 strong and by far higher than 50%) for SQC; and p40+/TTF1- or p40+/TTF1- (p40 strong and less than 50%) for ADSQC. The single SC case was p40-/TTF1-, suggesting glandular lineage. Practically, 41/46 (89%) tumors were correctly classified by IHC on small samples, including 30 AD, 10 SQC, 1/5 ADSQC, and no SC. Underdiagnosis of ADSQC was actually because of sampling error of biopsies/cellblocks rather than insufficient biomarker robustness, whereas underdiagnosis of SC was really because of the failure of either marker to highlight epithelialmesenchymal transition. Conclusions: This minimalist IHC-based model of p40 and TTF1 on biopsy/cellblock samples was effective to correctly subtype most cases of lung cancer. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Casali C.,Policlinico di Modena | Rossi G.,Section of Pathologic Anatomy | Marchioni A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Sartori G.,Section of Pathologic Anatomy | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION:: Prognostic evaluation of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) from a homogenous population of Caucasian patients. METHODS:: Retrospective analysis of resected BAC reclassified according to the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors. Analyzed variables are clinicoradiologic presentation, histologic subtypes, stage, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2/neu immunohistochemical expression, EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 mutations, K-RAS exon 2 mutation. Univariate and multivariate analyses of survival were performed. RESULTS:: Of 40 patients analyzed, EGFR and HER2/neu expression were detected in 72% and 20%, respectively. HER2/neu expression significantly characterized mucinous BAC (46% versus 7%; p = 0.014). EGFR mutations were identified in 17% (30% in nonmucinous BAC and none in mucinous BAC; p = 0.083). K-RAS mutations were found in 42.5% (92% in mucinous BAC versus 18% in other types; p < 0.0001). Early stages (IA+IB) nonmucinous BAC had excellent prognosis: 5 years overall survival of 91% (100% for stage IA). Sixty six percent (4 of 6) of patients with multifocal disease died (two mucinous BAC and one nonmucinous BAC with recurrent disease). Seventy one percent (5 of 7) of patients with pneumonic-like tumor (all mucinous BAC) died of recurrent/progressive disease. Stage (p = 0.004) and histologic classifications (p = 0.035) resulted as independent prognostic factors at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:: Early stage nonmucinous BAC has excellent prognosis, whereas mucinous BAC presents a poor prognosis. Locally advanced nonmucinous BAC has a poor prognosis: the diagnosis of nonmucinous BAC in large tumors should be interpreted with caution given the possible presence of invasive areas in incompletely sampled tumor. Coexpression of EGFR and HER2/neu in mucinous BAC could be considered for future trials on target therapies even in Caucasian population. Copyright © 2010 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Pelosi G.,University of Milan | Barbareschi M.,Operative Unit of Pathology | Cavazza A.,Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova IRCCS | Graziano P.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza | And 2 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2015

Large cell carcinoma (LCC) is a merely descriptive term indicating a subtype of lung cancer with no specific features of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SQC). This diagnosis is allowed on surgical specimens only, whereas its counterpart in biopsy/cytology samples is non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), not otherwise specified (NOS). Although these two terms do not fulfill the same concept, they can be interchangeable synonyms at the clinical level, reflecting, in different ways, the inability to define a specific subtype. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and, historically, electron microscopy have been unveiling diverse cell differentiation lineages in LCC, resulting in LCC-favor ADC, LCC-favor SQC and LCC-favor large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), the latter hopefully to be included into the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) group in the future. Paradoxically, however, the interpretation issues of LCC/NSCLC-NOS are not diminishing, but even increasing albeight an accurate diagnosis is oncologically required and crucial. Also, rare LCC/NSCLC-NOS cases exhibiting null/unclear phenotype, are difficult to classify, and this terminology could be maintained for the sake of classification (basically these tumors are serendipitous ADC, as also confirmed by the lack of p40). In this review article, seven relevant issues to LCC have been addressed by using a question-answer methodology, with final key points discussing major interpretation issues. In conclusion, most LCC/NSCLC-NOS may be eventually re-classified and addressed by exploiting IHC and/or molecular testing to satisfy the criteria of precision medicine (the right drug, to the right patient, at the right time). © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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