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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Bybel B.,Health Science Center | Greenberg I.D.,Health Science Center | Paterson J.,Health Science Center | Ducharme J.,Health Science Center | Leslie W.D.,Section of Nuclear Medicine
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2011

Purpose: A matched case-control study was performed to assess the relationship between metformin use and the degree of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) bowel activity in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven diabetic patients referred to our department for a positron emission tomography/computed tomography study, including 45 on metformin, were compared with nondiabetic controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index. Positron emission tomography studies were obtained in a standard manner and reviewed in a blinded fashion. F-18 FDG uptake in the GI tract was evaluated quantitatively using maximal standardized uptake values and visually using a previously published semiquantitative scale. Results: F-18 FDG uptake in small and large bowel was significantly increased in metformin patients compared with nondiabetic controls both visually and quantitatively (all P < 0.0001), as well as compared with nonmetformin patients with diabetes. Control sites (liver, fat, muscle) showed similar uptake. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that metformin was the variable most strongly associated with bowel uptake. Conclusion: Physiologic accumulation of F-18 FDG in bowel is increased in diabetic patients maintained on metformin. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source

Rondelli F.,University of Perugia | Vedovati M.C.,University of Perugia | Becattini C.,University of Perugia | Tomassini G.M.,University of Perugia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2012

Objectives Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a prognostic tool for patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas. However, controversies exist regarding its role in patients with thick melanomas (tumour thickness greater than 4.0 mm). We performed a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic role of SLN in thick melanoma in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods An electronic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the terms 'melanoma' and 'sentinel lymph node' was performed. Studies were considered if they reported data on thick melanoma and SLN biopsy results (positive and negative) and outcomes (DFS or OS). A proportion meta-analysis was used to calculate weighted means and an incidence rate ratio meta-analysis was used to compare outcomes according to SLN biopsy results. Results Nine studies were included. The weighted mean thickness of melanoma was 4.4 mm, 42% of patients had ulcerated melanoma. SLN was positive in 36% of the patients. Overall, DFS was 71% in patients with a negative SLN and 39% in patients with a positive SLN after a median follow-up of 33 months (IRR 1.83, 95% CI = 1.56-2.14). OS was 71% in patients with a negative SLN and 49% in patients with a positive SLN (IRR 1.44, 95% CI = 1.25-1.65). Conclusions The results of this analysis showed that thick melanoma patients with a positive SLN had a significantly worse survival compared with SLN negative patients, thus supporting the routine adoption of SLN biopsy as a prognostic tool also for this subgroup of patients. © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source

Garske U.,Section of Nuclear Medicine | Sandstrom M.,Uppsala University Hospital | Johansson S.,Uppsala University Hospital | Sundin A.,Uppsala University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2012

Aims. Fractionated 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment option for patients with generalized neuroendocrine tumors. In our clinic, full individual dosimetry is performed during the first therapy cycle, while dosimetry at later cycles is based on the 24 h uptake measurement assuming an unchanged effective half-life. Our aim was to evaluate this assumption and the variation in the 24 h uptake during therapy. Patients. Thirty patients, 13 women and 17 men, were included in the study. Methods. During the first therapy cycle the 177Lu-concentration was measured with SPECT/CT over the abdomen at 24 h, 96 h and 168 h after infusion. The effective half-life was determined for the kidneys, liver and spleen. The procedure was repeated at cycle 4 or 5. Results. The median ratio between the effective half-lives of the latter and the first cycle was 0.97 and 1.01 for the right and left kidney, with a range of 0.891.01 (1st3rd quartile) and 0.931.05, respectively. Discussion. The mean value of the ratios was slightly lower than one, indicating a tendency towards increased activity elimination during therapy. In individual patients, significant changes were found for all organs, often when a large tumor burden reduction occurred during treatment. Possible contributing factors appeared to be larger amounts of non-tumor bound tracer, improved organ function (kidneys), decrease of vessel obstruction (spleen), less scatter from large tumors and reduction of small metastases (liver and spleen). Conclusion. With most patients it is safe to estimate absorbed doses to kidneys, liver and spleen from 24 h activity concentration assuming an unchanged effective half-life during therapy. Patients with risk factors for kidney dysfunction need to be monitored in more detail. Simplified dosimetry based on the assumption of unchanged effective half-life can function as guidance to the number of therapy cycles an individual patient can tolerate. © 2012 Informa Healthcare. Source

Chai J.-W.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chai J.-W.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chai J.-W.,National Yang Ming University | Chen W.-H.,Section of Nuclear Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2011

Purpose To solve the problem of the basal descent movement in quantification of the regional left ventricular (LV) myocardial wall thickness (WTh) and wall thickening (%WT) in short-axis (SA) cine MRI for effectively assessing the regional wall motion of LV myocardium. Materials and Methods LV long-axis tagged MRI and SA cine MRI were performed to calculate the longitudinal translation and circumferential WTh of LV myocardium in eight normal volunteers. The new SA end-systolic thickness (EST) data were reconstructed from the original EST data, based on the quantified longitudinal translation of LV myocardium. Results The mean %WT of six segments in the basal section after correction was significantly different from that before correction in both intra- and inter-operator experiments. The polar map also showed the significant improvement of the variability of regional %WT and lack of quantification of %WT in the most basal SA slices after correction. Conclusion The proposed technique demonstrated an important advantage to calculate the %WT in the most basal SA myocardial tissue, which was considered difficult to be achieved using cine MRI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Chou C.-P.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Chou C.-P.,National Yang Ming University | Huang N.-C.,Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital | Jhuang S.-J.,National Sun Yat - sen University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer. © 2014 Chou et al. Source

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