Rampias T.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Boutati E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens |
Pectasides E.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Sasaki C.,Yale University |
And 7 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2010
We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear β-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin levels and the β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear β-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by β-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of β-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of β-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of β-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous β-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/ proteasome pathway for β-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells. ©2010 AACR.
Koumarianou A.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Karageorgopoulou S.,Section of Medical Oncology |
MacHairas A.,Attikon University Hospital |
Liakakos T.,Attikon University Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Case Reports in Oncology | Year: 2012
A 59-year-old male presented with a painful right inguinal swelling and deep vein thrombosis at the ipsilateral leg. An inguinal hernia was initially diagnosed, but during surgery a large mass was found anteriorly to the peritoneal sheaths. Histology revealed a high-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. The mass advanced rapidly, occupying the whole right iliac fossa and metastasizing to the lung. Despite first- and second-line chemotherapy, the patient deteriorated rapidly and died. Rhabdomyosarcomas should be managed in specialized centres as they have prognostic factors and histologic features still controversial and poorly clarified. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Correale P.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Rotundo M.S.,University of Catanzaro |
Del Vecchio M.T.,University of Siena |
Remondo C.,Section of Medical Oncology |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Immunotherapy | Year: 2010
Antitumor immune response and chemotherapy-induced immunomodulation in colon cancer patients represented the rationale to design new strategies, like GOLFIG chemoimmunotherapy (gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and aldesleukine), that resulted a safe and very active regimen. Antitumor activity and immunity feedback to GOLFIG were strictly correlated with the best outcome observed in patients with autoimmunity signs, increase of central memory T cells, and decrease of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the peripheral blood. We thus investigated a potential correlation between the Treg tumor infiltration at diagnosis and the clinical outcome in a current randomized phase 3 trial aimed to compare the GOLFIG regimen with the standard FOLFOX chemotherapy (GOLFIG-2). An immunohistochemistry study was carried out to quantify the infiltration of Treg/FoxP3+ T lymphocytes in tumor samples of 57 patients enrolled in the GOLFIG-2 trial. Treg tumor infiltration scores were correlated with overall survival, treatment-relative survival, and progressionfree survival (PFS). Higher T reg tumor infiltration scores were associated with a better prognosis in the whole series (Treg high score vs. low score: overall survival= mean 43.2 mo vs. 28.6 mo, P= 0.0005) and a better outcome after treatment (Treg high score vs. low score: PFS=mean 15.8mo vs. 8.8 mo, P=0.0009; treatment-relative survival=mean 23.1mo vs. 18.2 mo, P =0.004). PFS was significantly longer in GOLFIG high versus all other subgroups (mean 18.1mo vs. 9.9 mo, P =0.01). Our results suggest that a higher FoxP3+ T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration score is a favorable prognostic factor in colon cancer patients undergoing chemo or chemoimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
PubMed | Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Section of Medical Oncology and Technical University of Istanbul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical genetics | Year: 2016
There is growing attention focused on local estrogen production in the breast tissue and its possible role in breast cancer initiation and progression. Understanding the underlying mechanisms for estrogen synthesis and the microenvironment consisting of tumor and its surrounding adipose tissue might open new avenues in breast cancer prevention, prognosis and treatment. In order to obtain insight, we compared peritumoral and tumor tissue expressions of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 genes, which play an important role in estrogen biosynthesis. The paired tissue samples of 20 postmenopausal ER
Hagemann I.S.,Genomics and Pathology Services |
Govindan R.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Javidan-Nejad C.,Washington University in St. Louis |
Pfeifer J.D.,Genomics and Pathology Services |
Cottrell C.E.,Genomics and Pathology Services
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2014
Precision medicine uses individually determined genomic information to guide treatment in cancer and other diseases. We have implemented a clinical genomics assay that uses targeted next-generation sequencing of 25 cancer-related genes to guide the use of targeted therapies in diverse malignancies. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of thymic origin, with disease progression after standard treatment. Targeted tumor sequencing revealed the presence of a KIT codon 579 deletion (p.D579del). This specific mutation has not previously been associated with thymic tumors, but has been reported in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and has been associated with response to imatinib. Imatinib therapy was instituted for and resulted in stabilization of disease. This case illustrates the potential of clinical next-generation sequencing to open unexpected avenues for treatment and thereby improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.
Filosso P.L.,University of Turin |
Yao X.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Ahmad U.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Zhan Y.,Section of Medical Oncology |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2015
Objective: Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (TNET) are exceedingly rare. We studied a large series of TNET identified through the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons databases. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study of patients undergoing operation for TNET between 1984 and 2012. Outcome measures were: overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of recurrences (CIR). OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIR was analyzed using competing risk analysis. Associations with clinical and prognostic factors for OS and CIR were evaluated using the log rank test and Gray test. Results: Two hundred five patients with TNET were treated: 25 patients received induction therapy (19 chemotherapy [CT] and 6 radiotherapy [RT]). Data about resection status were available in 47% of cases: complete resection was performed in 52 patients (54%). Masaoka-Koga stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 12, 33, 56, and 47 patients, respectively. Atypical carcinoid was the commonest histologic subtype (71 cases; 40%). One hundred one patients with TNET received adjuvant treatment; 52 patients died and 36 experienced a recurrence. The median OS was 7.5 years; 5-year OS was 68%, and 5-year CIR was 39%. OS was significantly influenced by Masaoka-Koga stage (P = .02) and completeness of resection (P = .03). CIR significantly increased in high Masaoka-Koga stages (P = .04). Histologic subtype was not associated with either OS or CIR. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high biologic aggressiveness of these rare neoplasms; pathologic stage and completeness of resection were demonstrated to be strong prognostic factors, whereas histology did not influence patients outcome. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.
Bronte F.,University of Palermo |
Bronte G.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Cusenza S.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Fiorentino E.,University of Palermo |
And 8 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014
The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.
Cingarlini S.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Bonomi M.,Section of Medical Oncology |
Corbo V.,Research Center |
Scarpa A.,Research Center |
Tortora G.,Section of Medical Oncology
Targeted Oncology | Year: 2012
The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in regulating critical cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, and protein synthesis. The study of cancer predisposing syndromes within which neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may arise has furnished clues on the involvement of mTOR pathway in sporadic diseases so far. Recent comprehensive analyses have definitely shown activation of mTOR pathway in both experimental and human sporadic NETs. Upstream regulators of mTOR (PTEN and TSC2) have been found mutated in sporadic pNETs. Activation of mTOR pathways in NETs is already demonstrated by expression profiles analysis that revealed downregulation of TSC2 gene and alterations of TSC2 and PTEN protein expression in the vast majority of well-differentiated tumors. Moreover, a global microRNA expression analysis revealed the overexpression, in highly aggressive tumors, of a microRNA (miR-21) that targets PTEN reducing its expression and therefore leading to mTOR activation as well. Overall, these clues have furnished the rationale for the use of mTOR inhibitors the treatment of pNETs. With the recent approval of Everolimus (mTOR-targeted drug) for the treatment of advanced pNETs, this paradigm has been effectively translated into the clinical setting. In this review, we discuss mTOR pathway involvement in NETs, the clinical evidence supporting the use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatment, and the current clinical issues that remain to be elucidated to improve patient management. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Knisely J.P.S.,Hofstra University |
Yu J.B.,Yale University |
Yu J.B.,Yale Cancer Center |
Flanigan J.,Section of Medical Oncology |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2012
Object. A prospectively collected cohort of 77 patients who underwent definitive radiosurgery between 2002 and 2010 for melanoma brain metastases was retrospectively reviewed to assess the impact of ipilimumab use and other clinical variables on survival. Methods. The authors conducted an institutional review board-approved chart review to assess patient age at the time of brain metastasis diagnosis, sex, primary disease location, initial radiosurgery date, number of metastases treated, performance status, systemic therapy and ipilimumab history, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) use, follow-up duration, and survival at the last follow-up. The Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DSGPA) score was calculated for each patient based on performance status and the number of brain metastases treated. Results. Thirty-five percent of the patients received ipilimumab. The median survival in this group was 21.3 months, as compared with 4.9 months in patients who did not receive ipilimumab. The 2-year survival rate was 47.2% in the ipilimumab group compared with 19.7% in the nonipilimumab group. The DS-GPA score was the most significant predictor of overall survival, and ipilimumab therapy was also independently associated with an improvement in the hazard for death (p = 0.03). Conclusions. The survival of patients with melanoma brain metastases managed with ipilimumab and definitive radiosurgery can exceed the commonly anticipated 4-6 months. Using ipilimumab in a supportive treatment paradigm of radiosurgery for brain oligometastases was associated with an increased median survival from 4.9 to 21.3 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 19.7% versus 47.2%. This association between ipilimumab and prolonged survival remains significant even after adjustment for performance status without an increased need for salvage WBRT.