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Moore T.,Infectious Disease Consultants IDC of Kansas | Rodriguez A.,Infectious Disease Society of America | Bakken J.S.,Section of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be a superior therapeutic modality for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that human stool should be classified as a biological agent and its use should be regulated to ensure patient safety. Consequently, the FDA determined that prescribers of FMT must possess an approved investigational new drug (IND) permit to administer FMT for the purpose of conducting research or treating any gastrointestinal condition other than RCDI. Although an IND is not required for use of FMT to treat RCDI, an IND is strongly encouraged and may ultimately be required. This article provides step-by-step guidance to infectious disease specialists on how to navigate the regulatory requirements and successfully obtain an IND before they can begin to use FMT as part of their clinical practice. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Malani A.N.,Section of Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

The echinocandins have not been studied for the treatment of Candida urinary tract infections. Current evidence in a small number of patients notes both success and failure.I report nonresponse to treatment with caspofungin associated with the rapid development of resistance in a 64-year-old woman with a complicated C. glabrata urinary tract infection. Until further clinical data are available, the echinocandins should be used with caution for the treatment of complicated C. glabrata urinary tract infections. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Torre D.,Section of Infectious Diseases | Pugliese A.,University of Turin
AIDS Reviews | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular disease has been frequent in HIV-infected patients both before and after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The pathogenic basis for the increase of cardiovascular disease, in particular myocardial lesions, may involve HIV-1 itself or other mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction, activation of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes in platelets, which lead to atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels. In the last decade, among the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 18 seems to play a central role in the inflammatory cascade, leading to development of atherosclerotic disease and the occurrence of ischemic heart disease in uninfected HIV-1 people. Increased levels of interleukin 18 were observed in HIV-1 infected patients. This review attempts to evaluate the role of interleukin 18 in cardiovascular disease, especially in myocardial infarction, in HIV-1 infection, as well as the relationship between interleukin 18 and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Two other characteristic aspects in HIV-1 infection, metabolic syndrome and lipodystrophy, will be evaluated in light of activity of interleukin 18. Moreover, the role of platelets and interleukin 18 as an important linkage between chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherogenesis will be highlighted. Finally, experimental an animal model of rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus clearly demonstrates the involvement of interleukin 18 in myocardial lesions, and that circulating levels of interleukin 18 are important predictors of coronary heart disease. In conclusion, interleukin 18 may be considered a partner in crime with other factors, including endothelial dysfunction, increased expression and production of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines in determining cardiovascular disease.

Bakken J.S.,Section of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Daily administration of the probiotic kefir given in combination with a staggered and tapered antibiotic withdrawal regimen may resolve recurrent Clostridium difficile infection as effectively as fecal microbiota transplantation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Tsai H.C.,Section of Infectious Diseases
Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health | Year: 2013

The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

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