Chicago, IL, United States
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PubMed | Section of Hematology Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago and Committee on Cancer Biology.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2014

Interindividual variation in cytosine modifications could contribute to heterogeneity in disease risks and other complex traits. We assessed the genetic architecture of cytosine modifications at 283,540 CpG sites in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from independent samples of European and African descent. Our study suggests that cytosine modification variation was primarily controlled in local by single major modification quantitative trait locus (mQTL) and additional minor loci. Local genetic epistasis was detectable for a small proportion of CpG sites, which were enriched by more than 9-fold for CpG sites mapped to population-specific mQTL. Genetically dependent CpG sites whose modification levels negatively (repressive sites) or positively (facilitative sites) correlated with gene expression levels significantly co-localized with transcription factor binding, with the repressive sites predominantly associated with active promoters whereas the facilitative sites rarely at active promoters. Genetically independent repressive or facilitative sites preferentially modulated gene expression variation by influencing local chromatin accessibility, with the facilitative sites primarily antagonizing H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 deposition. In comparison with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), mQTL detected from LCLs were enriched in associations for a broader range of disease categories including chronic inflammatory, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that cytosine modification variation, while possesses a degree of cell linage specificity, is more stably inherited over development than gene expression variation. About 11% of unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported in the Genome-Wide Association Study Catalog were annotated, 78% as mQTL and 31% as eQTL in LCLs, which covered 37% of the investigated diseases/traits and provided insights to the biological mechanisms.

LaCroix B.,University of Chicago | Gamazon E.R.,Section of Genetic Medicine | Lenkala D.,University of Chicago | Im H.K.,Section of Genetic Medicine | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Using genome-wide genetic, gene expression, and microRNA expression (miRNA) data, we developed an integrative approach to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of chemotherapeutic sensitivity.Results: Through a sequential multi-stage framework, we identified genes and miRNAs whose expression correlated with platinum sensitivity, mapped these to genomic loci as quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and evaluated the associations between these QTLs and platinum sensitivity. A permutation analysis showed that top findings from our approach have a much lower false discovery rate compared to those from a traditional GWAS of drug sensitivity. Our approach identified five SNPs associated with 10 miRNAs and the expression level of 15 genes, all of which were associated with carboplatin sensitivity. Of particular interest was one SNP (rs11138019), which was associated with the expression of both miR-30d and the gene ABCD2, which were themselves correlated with both carboplatin and cisplatin drug-specific phenotype in the HapMap samples. Functional study found that knocking down ABCD2 in vitro led to increased apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 after cisplatin treatment. Over-expression of miR-30d in vitro caused a decrease in ABCD2 expression, suggesting a functional relationship between the two.Conclusions: We developed an integrative approach to the investigation of the genetic and epigenetic basis of human complex traits. Our approach outperformed standard GWAS and provided hints at potential biological function. The relationships between ABCD2 and miR-30d, and ABCD2 and platin sensitivity were experimentally validated, suggesting a functional role of ABCD2 and miR-30d in sensitivity to platinating agents. © 2014 LaCroix et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Trubetskoy V.,Section of Genetic Medicine | Rodriguez A.,University of Chicago | Dave U.,University of Chicago | Campbell N.,Vanderbilt University | And 7 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Motivation: The development of cost-effective next-generation sequencing methods has spurred the development of high-throughput bioinformatics tools for detection of sequence variation. With many disparate variant-calling algorithms available, investigators must ask, 'Which method is best for my data?' Machine learning research has shown that so-called ensemble methods that combine the output of multiple models can dramatically improve classifier performance. Here we describe a novel variant-calling approach based on an ensemble of variant-calling algorithms, which we term the Consensus Genotyper for Exome Sequencing (CGES). CGES uses a two-stage voting scheme among four algorithm implementations. While our ensemble method can accept variants generated by any variant-calling algorithm, we used GATK2.8, SAMtools, FreeBayes and Atlas-SNP2 in building CGES because of their performance, widespread adoption and diverse but complementary algorithms. Results: We apply CGES to 132 samples sequenced at the Hudson Alpha Institute for Biotechnology (HAIB, Huntsville, AL) using the Nimblegen Exome Capture and Illumina sequencing technology. Our sample set consisted of 40 complete trios, two families of four, one parent-child duo and two unrelated individuals. CGES yielded the fewest total variant calls (NCGES=139897), the highest Ts/Tv ratio (3.02), the lowest Mendelian error rate across all genotypes (0.028%), the highest rediscovery rate from the Exome Variant Server (EVS; 89.3%) and 1000 Genomes (1KG; 84.1%) and the highest positive predictive value (PPV; 96.1%) for a random sample of previously validated de novo variants. We describe these and other quality control (QC) metrics from consensus data and explain how the CGES pipeline can be used to generate call sets of varying quality stringency, including consensus calls present across all four algorithms, calls that are consistent across any three out of four algorithms, calls that are consistent across any two out of four algorithms or a more liberal set of all calls made by any algorithm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Njiaju U.O.,University of Chicago | Gamazon E.R.,Section of Genetic Medicine | Gorsic L.K.,University of Chicago | Delaney S.M.,University of Chicago | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics | Year: 2012

Objective: The clinical use of paclitaxel is limited by variable responses and the potential for significant toxicity. To date, studies of associations between variants in candidate genes and paclitaxel effects have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between global gene expression and paclitaxel sensitivity. Methods: We utilized well-genotyped lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the International HapMap Project to evaluate the relationships between cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel and global gene expression. Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of paclitaxel to evaluate paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Among the top genes, we identified solute carrier (SLC) genes associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and narrowed down the list to those that had single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with both the expression level of the SLC gene and also with paclitaxel sensitivity. We performed an independent validation in an independent set of cell lines and also conducted functional studies using RNA interference. Results: Of all genes associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity at P less than 0.05 (1713 genes), there was a significant enrichment in SLC genes (31 genes). A subset of SLC genes, namely SLC31A2, SLC43A1, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2, was associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and had regulating single nucleotide polymorphisms that were also associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that those four SLC genes together explained 20% of the observed variability in paclitaxel susceptibility. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated increased paclitaxel susceptibility with knockdown of three SLC genes, SLC31A2, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2. Conclusion: Our findings are novel and lend further support to the role of transporters, specifically solute carriers, in mediating cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

PubMed | Section of Genetic Medicine.
Type: | Journal: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) | Year: 2016

Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have generated vast amounts of analysis results, requiring development of novel tools for data visualization. Quantile-quantile (QQ) plots and Manhattan plots are classical tools which have been utilized to visually summarize GWAS results and identify genetic variants significantly associated with traits of interest. However, static visualizations are limiting in the information that can be shown. Here, we present ASSOCPLOTS: , a Python package for viewing and exploring GWAS results not only using classic static Manhattan and QQ plots, but also through a dynamic extension which allows to interactively visualize the relationships between GWAS results from multiple cohorts or studies.The Assocplots package is open source and distributed under the MIT license via GitHub ( along with examples, documentation and installation or

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