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San Fedele Superiore, Italy

Rosano L.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | Cianfrocca R.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | Tocci P.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | Spinella F.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

Despite the fundamental pathophysiological importance of β-catenin in tumor progression, the mechanism underlying its final transcriptional output has been partially elucidated. Here, we report that β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) is an epigenetic regulator of endothelin (ET)-1-induced β-catenin signaling in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In response to ET A receptor (ETAR) activation by ET-1, β-arr1 increases its nuclear translocation and direct binding to β-catenin. This in turn enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity, which was prevented by expressing a mutant β-arr1 incapable of nuclear distribution. β-arr1-β-catenin interaction controls β-catenin target gene expressions, such as ET-1, Axin 2, Matrix metalloproteinase 2, and Cyclin D1, by promoting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) dissociation and the recruitment of p300 acetyltransferase on these promoter genes, resulting in enhanced H3 and H4 histone acetylation, and gene transcription, required for cell migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These effects are abrogated by β-arr1 silencing or by mutant β-arr1, as well as by β-catenin or p300 silencing, confirming that nuclear β-arr1 forms a functional complex capable of regulating epigenetic changes in β-catenin-driven invasive behavior. In a murine orthotopic model of metastatic human EOC, silencing of β-arr1 or mutant β-arr1 expression, as well as ET AR blockade, inhibits metastasis. In human EOC tissues, β-arr1-β-catenin nuclear complexes are selectively enriched at β-catenin target gene promoters, correlating with tumor grade, confirming a direct in vivo β-arr1-β-catenin association at specific set of genes involved in EOC progression. Collectively, our study provides insights into how a β-arr1-mediated epigenetic mechanism controls β-catenin activity, unraveling new components required for its nuclear function in promoting metastasis. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Semprucci E.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Tocci P.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Cianfrocca R.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Sestito R.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2016

The endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ET A receptor (ETAR) signalling pathway is a well-established driver of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. One key process promoted by ET-1 is tumor cell invasion, which requires the scaffolding functions of β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) downstream of the receptor; however, the potential role of ET-1 in inducing invadopodia, which are crucial for cellular invasion and tumor metastasis, is completely unknown. We describe here that ET-1/ETAR, through β-arr1, activates RhoA and RhoC GTPase and downstream ROCK (Rho-associated coiled coil-forming kinase) kinase activity, promoting actin-based dynamic remodelling and enhanced cell invasion. This is accomplished by the direct interaction of β-arr1 with PDZ-RhoGEF (postsynaptic density protein 95/disc-large/zonula occludens-RhoGEF). Interestingly, ETAR-mediated invasive properties are related to the regulation of invadopodia, as evaluated by colocalization of actin with cortactin, as well as with TKS5 and MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) with areas of matrix degradation, and activation of cofilin pathway, which is crucial for regulating invadopodia activity. Depletion of PDZ-RhoGEF, or β-arr1, or RhoC, as well as the treatment with the dual ET-1 receptor antagonist macitentan, significantly impairs invadopodia function, MMP activity and invasion, demonstrating that β-arr1/PDZ-RhoGEF interaction mediates ETAR-driven ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway through the control of RhoC activity. In vivo, macitentan is able to inhibit metastatic dissemination and cofilin phosphorylation. Collectively, our data unveil a noncanonical activation of the RhoC/ROCK pathway through the β-arr1/PDZ-RhoGEF complex as a regulator of ETAR-induced motility and metastasis, establishing ET-1 axis as a novel regulator of invadopodia protrusions through the RhoC/ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway during the initial steps of EOC invasion. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Spadaro F.,Section of Experimental Immunotherapy | Lapenta C.,Section of Experimental Immunotherapy | Donati S.,Section of Experimental Immunotherapy | Abalsamo L.,Section of Experimental Immunotherapy | And 4 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Cross-presentation allows antigen-presenting cells to present exogenous antigens to CD8+ T cells, playing an essential role in controlling infections and tumor development. IFN-α induces the rapid differentiation of human monocytes into dendritic cells, known as IFN-DCs, highly efficient in mediating cross-presentation, as well as the crosspriming of CD8 + T cells. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cross-presentation ability of IFN-DCs by studying the intracellular sorting of soluble ovalbumin and nonstructural-3 protein of hepatitis C virus. Our results demonstrate that, independently from the route and mechanism of antigen entry, IFN-DCs are extraordinarily competent in preserving internalized proteins from early degradation and in routing antigens toward the MHC class-I processing pathway, allowing long-lasting, cross-priming capacity. In IFN-DCs, both early and recycling endosomes function as key compartments for the storage of both antigens and MHC-class I molecules and for proteasome-and transporter-associated with Ag processing-dependent auxiliary cross-presentation pathways. Because IFN-DCs closely resemble human DCs naturally occurring in vivo in response to infections and other danger signals, these findings may have important implications for the design of vaccination strategies in neoplastic or chronic infectious diseases. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

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