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Soares T.S.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Fernandes S.A.F.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Lima M.L.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Stumpp T.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Andrology | Year: 2013

Summary: Varicocoele is an important cause of male infertility. Normal male reproductive function and fertility depends on a delicate balance between androgen receptor (AR) and the classic oestrogen receptors ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ). Using a model of surgically induced varicocoele in rats, this study aimed to investigate the effects of varicocoele on the expression of AR, ESR1, ESR2 and G-protein coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER). Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA and protein expression of ESR1 and ESR2 in both testes. Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA and protein expression of GPER in the right testis, but slightly reduced the mRNA and increased the protein levels in the left testis. Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA for AR, but reduced the protein levels in both testes. A proteomic approach was used in an attempt to find differentially expressed targets with possible correlation with AR downregulation. Varicocoele caused the differential expression of 29 proteins. Six proteins were upregulated, including the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), and 23 were downregulated, including dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and pyrophosphatase 1. Western blot analysis confirmed that varicocoele upregulated the expression of RACK1, a protein involved with tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of AR transcriptional activity, AR metabolism and dynamics of the blood-testis barrier. In conclusion, this study suggests that varicocoele affects mechanisms that control AR expression and function. This regulation of AR may play an important role in the varicocoele-induced testicular dysfunction. Furthermore, varicocoele downregulates several other proteins in the testis that may be useful markers of spermatozoa function and male infertility. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology. Source

Pisolato R.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Lombardi A.P.G.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Vicente C.M.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | Lucas T.F.G.,Section of Experimental Endocrinology | And 2 more authors.
Steroids | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to identify the expression, cellular localization and regulation of classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, ER-α36 isoform and GPER in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3. In addition, we evaluated the relative contribution of these receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases) signaling pathway. These four estrogen receptors were detected by Western blot assays and were shown by immunofluorescence assays to localize preferentially in extranuclear regions of PC-3 cells. In addition, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) (1 μM) for 24 h led to down-regulation of the classic estrogen receptors, whereas E2 at physiological concentration (0.1 nM) for 24 h tended to increase the levels of ERα and ERβ. Furthermore, the ERα-selective agonist PPT selectively increased the expression of ERβ and the ERβ-selective agonist DPN increased ERα levels. None of these treatments affected expression of the ER-α36 isoform. The unusual cytoplasmic localization of the classic estrogen receptors in these cells differs from the nuclear localization in the majority of estrogen target cells and suggests that rapid signaling pathways may be preferentially activated. In fact, treatment with selective agonists of ERα, ERβ and GPER induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was blocked by the respective antagonists. On the other hand, activation of ERK1/2 induced by E2 may involve additional mechanisms because it was not blocked by the three antagonists. Taken together, the results indicate that there is a crosstalk between ERα and ERβ to regulate the expression of each other, and suggest the involvement of other receptors, such as ER-α36, in the rapid ERK1/2 activation by E2. The identification of new isoforms of ERs, regulation of the receptors and signaling pathways is important to develop new therapeutic strategies for the castration-resistant prostate cancer. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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