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Hartnack S.,Section of Epidemiology | Nathues C.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Nathues H.,Royal Veterinary College London | Grosse Beilage E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Lewis F.I.,Section of Epidemiology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard") is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect), robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI) and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9) and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3), respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8). For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals. © 2014 Hartnack et al.


Chiu C.-C.,Taipei City Hospital | Chiu C.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Frangou S.,King's College London | Chang C.-J.,Cathay General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs have been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but also with depression - itself a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate associations between n-3 PUFA concentrations in erythrocyte membrane or plasma and cognitive function in an at-risk sample of older people with previous major depression and to explore specificity with respect to cognitive domains. Design: A cross-sectional sample of 132 eligible participants who had recovered from major depression (mean ± SD age: 67.8 ± 6.6 y) were enrolled from outpatient psychiatric services. A series of cognitive tests and a structured questionnaire were administered. Fasting blood samples were collected for n-3 PUFA measurements. Results: Higher EPA and total n-3 PUFA concentrations and a lower ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA in erythrocyte membranes were associated with a higher cognitive composite score: independent of age and sex, but no longer significant after adjustment for education. No associations were found with plasma concentrations of any fatty acid. Considering individual cognitive tests, the strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs and a-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression. Conclusions: Total erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations are positively associated with cognitive function, particularly immediate recall, in older people with previous depression. Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in older people with previous recurrent depression. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Watters R.D.,Cornell University | Schuring N.,GEA Farm Technologies | Erb H.N.,Section of Epidemiology | Schukken Y.H.,Cornell University | Galton D.M.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Premilking udder preparation (including forestripping and duration of lag time-the time between first tactile stimulation and attachment of milking unit) might influence milking measures such as milking unit on-time, incidence of bimodality, and milk flow rates in Holstein cows milked 3 times daily. Holstein cows (n=786) from an 1,800-cow commercial dairy herd were enrolled under a restricted randomized design to determine the effect of 9 different premilking routines. Lag times were 0, 60, 90, 120, and 240. s and included forestripping or no forestripping for a total of 9 treatments (no forestripping for 0 lag time); the study was conducted from February to November 2008. All cow-treatment combinations were compared with the control: predipping plus forestripping and drying with 90. s of lag time. Cows were initially assigned to 1 of 3 treatments for a period of 7. d and upon completion of the first 7-d period were reassigned to a different treatment until all treatments had been completed. From one treatment period to the next, cows had to switch stimulation method with no restriction on lag time. Cows did not receive all treatments during the duration of the trial. Early- to mid-lactation cows (EML; 17-167 DIM) and late-lactation cows (LL; 174-428 DIM) were housed in 2 different pens. Milk yield was significantly different between dip. +. forestrip and dip. +. dry for 2 of the treatments for EML cows compared with dip. +. forestrip and 90. s of lag-time (DF90); however, this was not thought to be due to treatment because the significant lag times were very different (60 and 240. s) and neither was an extreme value. Milk yield did not differ with treatment for the LL cows. Milking unit on-time did not differ when comparing all treatments for EML with treatment DF90; however, an increase in milking unit on-time occurred when lag time was 60. s or less for LL cows. The highest incidence of bimodal milk curves was when lag time=0 and this was independent of stage of lactation; a lag time of 240. s had the second-highest incidence of bimodal milk curves for EML and LL cows. Milk harvested in the first 2. min was lower for lag times of 0 and 240. s when compared with DF90. Increasing the lag time for all cows appeared to improve overall milking time efficiency (although lag time had no effect on EML cows). © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | University of Zürich, Section of Epidemiology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences and University Utrecht
Type: | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2015

Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ER (ESR1), ER (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential.For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary tissues of anestrous and spayed dogs.Herein, it has been confirmed that transformation towards malignant neoplasms is associated with significant reduction of gene expression of particular hormone receptors. Only PRLR in malignant tumors seems to be influenced by circulating PRL levels. In dogs, CDH-1 can be used as a prognostic factor; its expression, however, in benign tumors is influenced by cycle stage.


Lahmar S.,Parasitology Laboratory | Boufana B.,University of Salford | Jebabli L.,Tunis Abattoir | Craig P.S.,University of Salford | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

During the period from March 2006 to July 2009 a total of 2040 slaughtered donkeys were examined for cystic echinococcosis (CE). CE prevalence in donkeys was 8.48% and the infection pressure (0.0088 infections per year) and infection rate (0.0448 cysts per year) appeared to be lower than those previously reported for cattle, sheep, dromedaries and goats in Tunisia. However, the number of cysts per infection was relatively high (5.07 cysts per infection). Among the 901 collected hydatid cysts the majority were located in the liver (89.9%), 10.09% in the lungs and 4.77% were fertile (43/901). The amplification of a fragment within the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) revealed that donkeys were infected with both Echinococcus equinus (horse strain, G4 genotype) and Echinococcus granulosus (sheep strain, G1 genotype). E. granulosus G1 developed into fertile cysts (15,112 protoscoleces/ml) with a protoscoleces viability of 65.78%. This investigation is the first detailed epidemiological report on cystic echinococcosis infection in donkeys for any endemic region. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Salford, Section of Epidemiology, Parasitology Laboratory and Tunis Abattoir
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014

During the period from March 2006 to July 2009 a total of 2040 slaughtered donkeys were examined for cystic echinococcosis (CE). CE prevalence in donkeys was 8.48% and the infection pressure (0.0088 infections per year) and infection rate (0.0448 cysts per year) appeared to be lower than those previously reported for cattle, sheep, dromedaries and goats in Tunisia. However, the number of cysts per infection was relatively high (5.07 cysts per infection). Among the 901 collected hydatid cysts the majority were located in the liver (89.9%), 10.09% in the lungs and 4.77% were fertile (43/901). The amplification of a fragment within the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) revealed that donkeys were infected with both Echinococcus equinus (horse strain, G4 genotype) and Echinococcus granulosus (sheep strain, G1 genotype). E. granulosus G1 developed into fertile cysts (15,112 protoscoleces/ml) with a protoscoleces viability of 65.78%. This investigation is the first detailed epidemiological report on cystic echinococcosis infection in donkeys for any endemic region.

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