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Dodgen T.M.,University of Pretoria | Hochfeld W.E.,University of Pretoria | Fickl H.,University of Pretoria | Asfaha S.M.,University of Pretoria | And 10 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic efficacy associated with currently prescribed pharmacotherapeutics may be attributed, in part, to inter-individual variability in drug metabolism. Studies on the pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes offer insight into this variability. The objective of this study was to compare the AmpliChip CYP450 Test® (AmpliChip) to alternative genotyping platforms for phenotype prediction of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a representative cohort of the South African population.Methods: AmpliChip was used to screen for thirty-three CYP2D6 and three CYP2C19 alleles in two different cohorts. As a comparison cohort 2 was then genotyped using a CYP2D6 specific long range PCR with sequencing (CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing) platform and a PCR-RFLP platform for seven CYP2C19 alleles.Results: Even though there was a low success rate for the AmpliChip, allele frequencies for both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were very similar between the two different cohorts. The CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing platform detected CYP2D6*5 more reliably and could correctly distinguish between CYP2D6*2 and *41 in the Black African individuals. Alleles not covered by the AmpliChip were identified and four novel CYP2D6 alleles were also detected. CYP2C19 PCR-RFLP identified CYP2C19*9,*15, *17 and *27 in the Black African individuals, with *2, *17 and *27 being relatively frequent in the cohort. Eliminating mismatches and identifying additional alleles will contribute to improving phenotype prediction for both enzymes. Phenotype prediction differed between platforms for both genes.Conclusion: Comprehensive genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 with the platforms used in this study, would be more appropriate than AmpliChip for phenotypic prediction in the South African population. Pharmacogenetically important novel alleles may remain undiscovered when using assays that are designed according to Caucasian specific variation, unless alternate strategies are utilised. © 2013 Dodgen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Wright G.E.B.,Stellenbosch University | Niehaus D.J.H.,Stellenbosch University | Drogemoller B.I.,Stellenbosch University | Koen L.,Stellenbosch University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Summary: Genetic variation of the CYP2D6 gene has been associated with altered drug metabolism; however, limited studies have investigated CYP2D6 sequence diversity in African populations. We devised a CYP2D6 genotyping strategy to analyse the South African Xhosa population and genotype a Xhosa schizophrenia cohort, as CYP2D6 metabolises many antipsychotics and antidepressants. The entire CYP2D6 gene locus was sequenced in 15 Xhosa control individuals and the data generated were used to design a comprehensive genotyping strategy. Over 25 CYP2D6 alleles were genotyped in Xhosa controls and Xhosa schizophrenia patients using long-range PCR, DNA sequencing and single nucleotide primer extension analysis. Bioinformatic algorithms were used to predict the functional consequences of relevant mutations and samples were assigned CYP2D6 activity scores.A unique allele distribution was revealed and two rare novel alleles, CYP2D6*73 and CYP2D6*74, were identified. No significant differences in allele frequencies were detected between Xhosa controls and schizophrenia patients. This study provides i) comprehensive data on a poorly characterised population, ii) a valuable CYP2D6 genotyping strategy and iii) due to their unique genetic profile, provides the basis for pharmacogenetic intervention for Xhosa individuals. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation. Source


Gaedigk A.,Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Fuhr U.,University of Cologne | Johnson C.,Dominion Diagnostics | Berard L.A.,University of Montreal | And 2 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2010

Aims: Allelic variants of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 (CYP2D6), such as gene deletion, duplication, multiplication and conversion, contribute to the wide range of CYP2D6 activity. Novel gene arrangements were discovered and characterized. Materials & methods: DNA from 32 Caucasian and 59 African-American duplication-positive subjects were analyzed by long-range PCR and genotyping to detect CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid tandem alleles. Novel allelic variants were sequenced and a strategy for the detection and analysis of hybrid genes was refined. Results: CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid tandem alleles were identified in one African-American and four Caucasian subjects. Three novel hybrid genes were found on CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 duplication backgrounds and designated CYP2D6*76, *77 and *78. CYP2D7to 2D6 conversion occurred in introns 1 and 4, and exon 9. All carried a T-insertion in exon 1 abolishing activity. In Caucasians, four out of 33 (12%) of the duplication-positive alleles were hybrid tandems, three CYP2D6*77 + *2 and one CYP2D6*78 + *2. By contrast, in African-Americans only one of 60 duplication-positive alleles was identified as a hybrid tandem. This allele was designated CYP2D6*76 + *1. Conclusion: Hybrid tandem alleles occur infrequently (<0.25%) in Caucasians, but may explain why not every subject with a CYP2D6 duplication presents with an ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Gaedigk A.,Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Gaedigk R.,Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Leeder J.S.,Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Gene copy number variations (CNVs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in the expression of genes and hence on their respective enzymatic activities. This has been demonstrated for a number of drug metabolizing genes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 2B17 (UGT2B17) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1), which are subject to genetic heterogeneity, including CNV. Quantitative assays to assess gene copy number are therefore becoming an integral part of accurate genotype assessment and phenotype prediction. Methods: In this study, we evaluated a microfluidics-based system, the Bio-Rad Experion system, to determine the power and utility of this platform to detect UGT2B17 and SULT1A1 CNV in DNA samples derived from blood and tissue. UGT2B17 is known to present with 0, 1 or 2 and SULT1A1 with up to 5 gene copies. Results: Distinct clustering (p<0.001) into copy number groups was achieved for both genes. DNA samples derived from blood exhibited less inter-run variability compared to DNA samples obtained from liver tissue. This variability may be caused by tissue-specific PCR inhibitors as it could be overcome by using DNA from another tissue, or after the DNA had undergone whole genome amplification. Conclusions: This method produced results comparable to those reported for other quantitative test platforms. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. Source

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