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Gripp K.W.,DuPont Company | Zand D.J.,Childrens National Medical Center | Demmer L.,Levine Childrens Hospital | Anderson C.E.,Section of Clinical Genetics | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Noonan syndrome is a heterogenous rasopathy typically presenting with short stature, characteristic facial features, cardiac abnormalities including pulmonic valve stenosis, ASD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cryptorchidism, ectodermal abnormalities, and learning differences. The phenotype is variable, and limited genotype phenotype correlation exists with SOS1 mutations often associated with normal cognition and stature, RAF1 mutations entailing a high HCM risk, and certain PTPN11 mutations predisposing to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recently identified SHOC2 mutation (p.Ser2Gly) causes Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair. We report five patients with this mutation. All had skin hyperpigmentation, sparse light colored hair, increased fine wrinkles, ligamentous laxity, developmental delay, and 4/4 had a structural cardiac anomaly. Hypotonia and macrocephaly occurred in 4/5 (80%); 3/5 (60%) had polyhydramnios, increased birth weight or required use of a feeding tube. Distinctive brain abnormalities included relative megalencephaly and enlarged subarachnoid spaces suggestive of benign external hydrocephalus, and a relatively small posterior fossa as indicated by a vertical tentorium. The combination of a large brain with a small posterior fossa likely resulted in the high rate of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (3/4; 75%). Periventricular nodular heterotopia was seen in one patient with a thick and dysplastic corpus callosum. We report on the first hematologic neoplasm, myelofibrosis, in a 2-year-old patient with SHOC2 mutation. Myelofibrosis is exceedingly rare in children and young adults. The absence of a somatic JAK2 mutation, seen in the majority of patients with myelofibrosis, is noteworthy as it suggests that germline or somatic SHOC2 mutations are causally involved in myelofibrosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Tonoki H.,Section of Clinical Genetics | Tonoki H.,Hokkaido University | Harada N.,Kyushu Medical Science Nagasaki Laboratory | Shimokawa O.,Kyushu Medical Science Nagasaki Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2011

Clinical phenotypes of and genetic aberrations in three unrelated Japanese patients with Axenfeld-Rieger anomalies and various accompanying malformations of systemic organs are described. GTG-banded chromosome analysis showed terminal deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 in two patients and an inversion, inv(6)(p25q14), in the other. FISH and DNA array analyses revealed that the two patients with deletions had 5.0-5.7Mb and 6.6Mb 6p terminal deletions, respectively, and FOXC1 was apparently deleted in both patients. In the other patient, the inversion breakpoint at 6p25 was estimated to be in or very close to the FOXC1 locus, but DNA array analysis did not reveal a deletion around the breakpoint. Common extraocular findings in these patients included broad forehead, brachycephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, small anteverted nose, and cardiac defects. Two patients also exhibited autistic characteristics. The two patients with deletions exhibited poor muscle tone and developmental delays. Most of these extraocular findings were similar to those found in previous patients with FOXC1 mutations and distinct from those found in patients with PITX2 mutations, who frequently develop umbilical and dental anomalies. We suggest that the psychomotor retardation is a clinical manifestation associated with a deletion of multiple contiguous genes in the 6p terminus and that this phenomenon is similar to the 6p25 deletion syndrome. Understanding the relationship between genetic lesions and the spectrum of extraocular findings in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger anomalies may lead to better clinical management. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Karaceper M.D.,University of Ottawa | Chakraborty P.,Newborn Screening Ontario | Coyle D.,University of Ottawa | Wilson K.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | And 21 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: There is no consensus in the literature regarding the impact of false positive newborn screening results on early health care utilization patterns. We evaluated the impact of false positive newborn screening results for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) in a cohort of Ontario infants. Methods: The cohort included all children who received newborn screening in Ontario between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2010. Newborn screening and diagnostic confirmation results were linked to province-wide health care administrative datasets covering physician visits, emergency department visits, and inpatient hospitalizations, to determine health service utilization from April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were used to compare those with false positive results for MCADD to those with negative newborn screening results, stratified by age at service use. Results: We identified 43 infants with a false positive newborn screening result for MCADD during the study period. These infants experienced significantly higher rates of physician visits (IRR: 1.42) and hospitalizations (IRR: 2.32) in the first year of life relative to a screen negative cohort in adjusted analyses. Differences in health services use were not observed after the first year of life. Conclusions: The higher use of some health services among false positive infants during the first year of life may be explained by a psychosocial impact of false positive results on parental perceptions of infant health, and/or by differences in underlying health status. Understanding the impact of false positive newborn screening results can help to inform newborn screening programs in designing support and education for families. This is particularly important as additional disorders are added to expanded screening panels, yielding important clinical benefits for affected children but also a higher frequency of false positive findings. © 2016 Karaceper et al. Source

Jansson R.W.,University of Bergen | Berland S.,Section of Clinical Genetics | Bredrup C.,University of Bergen | Austeng D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Ophthalmic Genetics | Year: 2016

Purpose: To describe the genotype and phenotype of patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB), and heterozygous carriers.Methods: The members of three unrelated ARB families were investigated. Molecular genetic analysis was performed on 11 members of these families. Ten members were examined clinically; including visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, biomicroscopy, fundus photography, and Goldmann applanation tonometry. Measurements were also made of the anterior chamber depth and axial length, and optical coherence tomography (OCT), electrooculography (EOG), and full-field electroretinography (full-field ERG) were performed. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) was performed on eight members of these families.Results: Two novel combinations of missense mutations in the BEST1 gene were identified: p.R141H/p.M325T in three patients with ARB in two unrelated Norwegian families, and p.R141H/p.I201T was found in an ARB patient in a Swedish family. All four patients with ARB had clinical and electrophysiological features of ARB. All the heterozygous carriers of the p.R141H mutation were clinically normal, and showed normal OCT, EOG and full-field ERG findings, but had mildly abnormal mfERG results. Only one heterozygous carrier of the p.M325T mutation was studied and he was clinically normal, showing normal OCT and full-field ERG results, but subnormal EOG and mfERG findings. The heterozygous carrier of the p.I201T mutation was clinically normal, showing normal OCT, EOG and full-field ERG results, but subnormal mfERG results.Conclusions: We have shown that the two novel combinations of compound heterozygous mutations p.R141H/p.M325T and p.R141H/p.I201T in the BEST1 gene can also lead to the ARB phenotype. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Singh G.,Sections of Paediatric Haematology and Paediatric Oncology | Singh G.,University of Calgary | Le D.,University of Calgary | Schnabl K.,University of Alberta | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2016

The classic principles put forth by Wilson and Jungner are often applied to determine the suitability of a condition for universal newborn screening. The three cases described here portray the harmful effects of vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. The challenges and opportunities of early recognition and treatment are highlighted. Screening newborns would allow early detection and prevention of severe neurological damage in vitamin B12-deficient infants and enable diagnosis of unrecognized maternal pernicious anemia in asymptomatic mothers. However, lack of standardized methodology and screening cutoffs present challenges to the use of current tandem mass spectrometry technologies for screening. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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