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Hodson D.J.,Section of Cell Biology | Mitchell R.K.,Section of Cell Biology | Marselli L.,University of Pisa | Pullen T.J.,Section of Cell Biology | And 17 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2014

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ADCY5 gene, encoding adenylate cyclase 5, are associated with elevated fasting glucose and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these polymorphic variants at the level of pancreatic β-cells remain unclear. Here, we show firstly that ADCY5 mRNA expression in islets is lowered by the possession of risk alleles at rs11708067. Next, we demonstrate that ADCY5 is indispensable for coupling glucose, but not GLP-1, to insulin secretion in human islets. Assessed by in situ imaging of recombinant probes, ADCY5 silencing impaired glucose-induced cAMP increases and blocked glucose metabolism toward ATP at concentrations of the sugar >8 mmol/L. However, calcium transient generation and functional connectivity between individual human β-cells were sharply inhibited at all glucose concentrations tested, implying additional, metabolism-independent roles for ADCY5. In contrast, calcium rises were unaffected in ADCY5-depleted islets exposed to GLP-1. Alterations in β-cell ADCY5 expression and impaired glucose signaling thus provide a likely route through which ADCY5 gene polymorphisms influence fasting glucose levels and T2D risk, while exerting more minor effects on incretin action. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Hodson D.J.,Section of Cell Biology | Mitchell R.K.,Section of Cell Biology | Bellomo E.A.,Section of Cell Biology | Sun G.,Section of Cell Biology | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Pancreatic β cell dysfunction is pathognomonic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is driven by environmental and genetic factors. β cell responses to glucose and to incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are altered in the disease state. While rodent β cells act as a coordinated syncytium to drive insulin release, this property is unexplored in human islets. In situ imaging approaches were therefore used to monitor in real time the islet dynamics underlying hormone release. We found that GLP-1 and GIP recruit a highly coordinated subnetwork of β cells that are targeted by lipotoxicity to suppress insulin secretion. Donor BMI was negatively correlated with subpopulation responses to GLP-1, suggesting that this action of incretin contributes to functional β cell mass in vivo. Conversely, exposure of mice to a high-fat diet unveiled a role for incretin in maintaining coordinated islet activity, supporting the existence of species-specific strategies to maintain normoglycemia. These findings demonstrate that β cell connectedness is an inherent property of human islets that is likely to influence incretin-potentiated insulin secretion and may be perturbed by diabetogenic insults to disrupt glucose homeostasis in humans. Source

Rutter G.A.,Section of Cell Biology | Hodson D.J.,Section of Cell Biology
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Beta cell connectivity describes the phenomenon whereby the islet context improves insulin secretion by providing a three-dimensional platform for intercellular signaling processes. Thus, the precise flow of information through homotypically interconnected beta cells leads to the large-scale organization of hormone release activities, influencing cell responses to glucose and other secretagogues. Although a phenomenon whose importance has arguably been underappreciated in islet biology until recently, a growing number of studies suggest that such cell-cell communication is a fundamental property of this micro-organ. Hence, connectivity may plausibly be targeted by both environmental and genetic factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to perturb normal beta cell function and insulin release. Here, we review the mechanisms that contribute to beta cell connectivity, discuss how these may fail during T2DM, and examine approaches to restore insulin secretion by boosting cell communication. © 2014 Springer Basel. Source

Semplici F.,Section of Cell Biology | Vaxillaire M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vaxillaire M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Fogarty S.,University of Utah | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

PAS kinase (PASK) is a glucose-regulated protein kinase involved in the control of pancreatic islet hormone release and insulin sensitivity. We aimed here to identify mutations in the PASK gene that may be associated with young-onset diabetes in humans. We screened 18 diabetic probands with unelucidated maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We identified two rare nonsynonymous mutations in the PASK gene (p.L1051V and p.G1117E), each of which was found in a single MODY family. Wild type or mutant PASKs were expressed in HEK 293 cells. Kinase activity of the affinity-purified proteins was assayed as autophosphorylation at amino acid Thr 307 or against an Ugp1p-derived peptide. Whereas the PASK p.G1117E mutant displayed a ∼25% increase with respect to wild type PASK in the extent of autophosphorylation, and a ∼2-fold increase in kinase activity toward exogenous substrates, the activity of the p.L1051V mutant was unchanged. Amino acid Gly 1117 is located in an α helical region opposing the active site of PASK and may elicit either: (a) a conformational change that increases catalytic efficiency or (b) a diminished inhibitory interaction with the PAS domain. Mouse islets were therefore infected with adenoviruses expressing wild type or mutant PASK and the regulation of insulin secretion was examined. PASK p.G1117E-infected islets displayed a 4-fold decrease in glucose-stimulated (16.7 versus 3 mM) insulin secretion, chiefly reflecting a 4.5-fold increase in insulin release at low glucose. In summary, we have characterized a rare mutation (p.G1117E) in the PASK gene from a young-onset diabetes family, which modulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Kone M.,Section of Cell Biology | Pullen T.J.,Section of Cell Biology | Sun G.,Section of Cell Biology | Ibberson M.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | And 18 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2014

Fully differentiated pancreatic β cells are essential for normal glucose homeostasis in mammals. Dedifferentiation of these cells has been suggested to occur in type 2 diabetes, impairing insulin production. Since chronic fuel excess ("glucotoxicity") is implicated in this process, we sought here to identify the potential roles in β-cell identity of the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1/STK11) and the downstream fuel-sensitive kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Highly β-cell-restricted deletion of each kinase in mice, using an Ins1-controlled Cre, was therefore followed by physiological, morphometric, and massive parallel sequencing analysis. Loss of LKB1 strikingly (2.0 -12-fold, E<0.01) increased the expression of subsets of hepatic (Alb, Iyd, Elovl2) and neuronal (Nptx2, Dlgap2, Cartpt, Pdyn) genes, enhancing glutamate signaling. These changes were partially recapitulated by the loss of AMPK, which also up-regulated β-cell "disallowed" genes (Slc16a1, Ldha, Mgst1, Pdgfra) 1.8-to 3.4-fold (E<0.01). Correspondingly, targeted promoters were enriched for neuronal (Zfp206; P=1.3 × 10-33) and hypoxia-regulated (HIF1; P=2.5 ×10-16) transcription factors. In summary, LKB1 and AMPK, through only partly overlapping mechanisms, maintain β-cell identity by suppressing alternate pathways leading to neuronal, hepatic, and other characteristics. Selective targeting of these enzymes may provide a new approach to maintaining β-cell function in some forms of diabetes.-Kone, M., Pullen, T. J., Sun, G., Ibberson, M., Martinez-Sanchez, A., Sayers, S., Nguyen-Tu, M.-S., Kantor, C., Swisa, A., Dor, Y., Gorman, T., Ferrer, J., Thorens, B., Reimann, F., Gribble, F., McGinty, J. A., Chen, L., French, P. M., Birzele, F., Hildebrandt, T., Uphues, I., Rutter, G. A. LKB1 and AMPK differentially regulate pancreatic β-cell identity. © FASEB. Source

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