Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics


Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

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Moen S.M.,University of Oslo | Celius E.G.,University of Oslo | Sandvik L.,Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Nordsletten L.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2011

Objective: Osteoporosis is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with long-standing disease. Hypovitaminosis D is a candidate risk factor for MS, and vitamin D also mediates bone mineralization. If vitamin D exerts a major effect on MS risk, skeletal consequences of hypovitaminosis D could be apparent shortly after the onset of MS. In order to test this hypothesis, we assessed bone mineral density (BMD) at early stages of disease in patients with no or minor disability. Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted on 99 consecutive and newly diagnosed patients with clinically isolated syndrome or MS, and on 159 age-, sex-, and ethnicitymatched controls. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the femoral neck, total hip, anterior-posterior lumbar spine, total body, and nondominant ultradistal radius. Results: A total of 50.5% of the patients exhibited either osteopenia (-2.5 < T score-<1.0) or osteoporosis (T score ≤-2.5) in at least one skeletal site, compared to 37.1% of controls (p = 0.034). After adjusting for possible confounders, left femoral total hip T score and lumbar spine BMD and T score were significantly lower in patients than in controls (p = 0.023, 0.039, and 0.026, respectively). Conclusions: Low bone mass appears to occur early in MS. This is compatible with shared etiologic or pathogenic factors in MS and osteoporosis, and calls for an active approach to optimize bone health in early stages of MS. © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Kiemeney L.A.,Biostatistics and Health Technology Assessment | Kiemeney L.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kiemeney L.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center East | Sulem P.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | And 80 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 × 10 12). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Denny S.J.,University of Auckland | Grant S.,University of Auckland | Utter J.,Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Robinson E.M.,Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2011

Aim: To describe the changes in the health and well-being of secondary school students from 2001 to 2007. Methods: A total of 9107 secondary school students were randomly selected to participate in a comprehensive health and well-being survey using Internet tablets conducted in 2007. Comparisons are made with the first health and well-being survey conducted in 2001. Results: Students from 2007 reported good relationships with their families, people in their schools and neighbourhoods. Compared with the 2001 survey, students surveyed in 2007 were more likely to report positive mental health, better nutritional habits and higher levels of physical activity, and were less likely to report using tobacco and marijuana than students in 2001. In addition, the proportion of students who reported significant depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviours had decreased since 2001. However, concerning proportions of students in 2007 reported: binge drinking, experience of physical and sexual abuse, and witnessing violence in their homes. Conclusion: While students' health and well-being have significantly improved from 2001 to 2007, there remain significant areas of concern. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Danish Cancer Society, Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC and 57 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2016

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.

Malama S.,University of Zambia | Johansen T.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Muma J.B.,University of Zambia | Mwanza S.,Tropical Diseases Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit- variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European Reference Laboratory are not suitable for typing M. bovis in Zambia. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

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