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Muwonge A.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Muwonge A.,Roslin Institute | Oloya J.,University of Georgia | Kankya C.,Makerere University | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Background: Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) cause disease in both human and animals. Their ubiquitous nature makes them both successful microbes and difficult to source track. The precise characterization of MAC species is a fundamental step in epidemiological studies and evaluating of possible reservoirs. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolated from human, slaughter cattle and pigs in various parts of the Uganda cattle corridor (UCC) at two temporal points using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. Methods: A total of 46 M. avium isolates; 31 from 997 pigs, 12 from 43 humans biopsies and three from 61 cattle lesions were identified to subspecies level using IS. 1245 and IS. 901 PCR, thereafter characterized using VNTR. Twelve loci from two previously described VNTR methods were used and molecular results were analyzed and interpreted using Bionumerics 6.1. Principal findings: 37 of the isolates were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis and four as M. avium subsp. avium, while five could not be differentiated, possibly due to mixed infection. There was distinct clustering that coincides with the temporal and spatial differences of the isolates. The isolates from humans and cattle in the North Eastern parts of the UCC shared identical VNTR genotypes. The panel of loci gave an overall discriminatory power of 0.88. Some loci were absent in several isolates, probably reflecting differences in isolates from Uganda/Africa compared to isolates previously analyzed by these methods in Europe and Asia. Conclusions: The findings indicate a molecular difference between M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from pigs in Mubende and cattle and human in the rest of the UCC. Although human and cattle shared VNTR genotypes in the North Eastern parts of the UCC, it is most likely a reflection of a shared environmental source. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Godfroid J.,Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine | Nielsen K.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Saegerman C.,University of Liege
Croatian Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Aim: To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods: The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results: Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion: The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. Source

Muwonge A.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Muwonge A.,Roslin Institute | Malama S.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Malama S.,Evelyn Hone College | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied.Methods:TB suspected patients were examined in a cross-sectional study at the Mubende regional referral hospital between February and July 2011. A questionnaire was administered to each patient to obtain information associated with TB prevalence. Isolates of M. tuberculosis recovered during sampling were examined for drug resistance to first line anti-TB drugs using the BACTEC-MGIT960TMsystem. All isolates were further characterized using deletion analysis, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Data were analyzed using different software; MIRU-VNTR plus, SITVITWEB, BioNumerics and multivariable regression models.Results:M. tuberculosis was isolated from 74 out of 344 patients, 48 of these were co-infected with HIV. Results from the questionnaire showed that previously treated TB, co-infection with HIV, cigarette smoking, and overcrowding were risk factors associated with TB, while high medical related transport bills were identified as an economic burden. Out of the 67 isolates that gave interpretable results, 23 different spoligopatterns were detected, nine of which were novel patterns. T2 with the sub types Uganda-I and Uganda-II was the most predominant lineage detected. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 19% and multidrug resistance was detected in 3% of the isolates.Conclusion:The study detected M. tuberculosis from 21% of examined TB patients, 62% of whom were also HIV positive. There is a heterogeneous pool of genotypes that circulate in this area, with the T2 lineage being the most predominant. High medical related transport bills and drug resistance could undermine the usefulness of the current TB strategic interventions. © 2013 Muwonge et al. Source

Weli S.C.,National Veterinary Institute | Tryland M.,Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine | Tryland M.,Genok Center for Bio safety
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Avipoxviruses (APVs) belong to the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the Poxviridae family. APVs are distributed worldwide and cause disease in domestic, pet and wild birds of many species. APVs are transmitted by aerosols and biting insects, particularly mosquitoes and arthropods and are usually named after the bird species from which they were originally isolated. The virus species Fowlpox virus (FWPV) causes disease in poultry and associated mortality is usually low, but in flocks under stress (other diseases, high production) mortality can reach up to 50%. APVs are also major players in viral vaccine vector development for diseases in human and veterinary medicine. Abortive infection in mammalian cells (no production of progeny viruses) and their ability to accommodate multiple gene inserts are some of the characteristics that make APVs promising vaccine vectors. Although abortive infection in mammalian cells conceivably represents a major vaccine bio-safety advantage, molecular mechanisms restricting APVs to certain hosts are not yet fully understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge relating to APVs, including classification, morphogenesis, host-virus interactions, diagnostics and disease, and also highlights the use of APVs as recombinant vaccine vectors. © 2011 Weli and Tryland; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jensen S.K.,University of Tromso | Jensen S.K.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Aars J.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Lydersen C.,Norwegian Polar Institute | And 2 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2010

Little is known about the prevalence of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in the arctic marine food chain of Svalbard, Norway. In this study, plasma samples were analyzed for T. gondii antibodies using a direct agglutination test. Antibody prevalence was 45.6% among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), 18. 7% among ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and 66.7% among adult bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) from Svalbard, but no sign of antibodies were found in bearded seal pups, harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) or narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from the same area. Prevalence was significantly higher in male polar bears (52.3%) compared with females (39.3%), likely due to dietary differences between the sexes. Compared to an earlier study, T. gondii prevalence in polar bears has doubled in the past decade. Consistently, an earlier study on ringed seals did not detect T. gondii. The high recent prevalence in polar bears, ringed seals and bearded seals could be caused by an increase in the number or survivorship of oocysts being transported via the North Atlantic Current to Svalbard from southern latitudes. Warmer water temperatures have led to influxes of temperate marine invertebrate filter-feeders that could be vectors for oocysts and warmer water is also likely to favour higher survivorship of oocycts. However, a more diverse than normal array of migratory birds in the Archipelago recently, as well as a marked increase in cruise-ship and other human traffic are also potential sources of T. gondii. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

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