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Munang'andu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Kankya C.,Makerere University | Oura C.,Institute for Animal Health | Oloya J.,University of Georgia
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53. 7% male and 46. 3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3. 8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0. 2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1. 7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3. 8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0. 2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Munangandu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Siamudaala V.,Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area Secretariat | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Nalubamba K.S.,University of Zambia
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2012 Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu et al.

Munang'Andu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Siamudaala V.M.,Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area Secretariat | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Nalubamba K.S.,University of Zambia
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37 (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. Copyright © 2012 Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu et al.

Muma J.B.,University of Zambia | Mwacalimba K.K.,Independent Health Policy Researcher | Munang'andu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Matope G.,University of Zimbabwe | And 5 more authors.
Veterinaria Italiana | Year: 2014

Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.

Muma J.B.,University of Zambia | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Matope G.,University of Zimbabwe | Siamudaala V.M.,Zambia Wildlife Authority | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps.Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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