Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition

Oslo, Norway

Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition

Oslo, Norway

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Munang'andu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Kankya C.,Makerere University | Oura C.,Institute for Animal Health | Oloya J.,University of Georgia
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53. 7% male and 46. 3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3. 8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0. 2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1. 7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3. 8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0. 2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Muma J.B.,University of Zambia | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Matope G.,University of Zimbabwe | Siamudaala V.M.,Zambia Wildlife Authority | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps.Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Munangandu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Siamudaala V.,Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area Secretariat | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Nalubamba K.S.,University of Zambia
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2012 Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu et al.


Munang'Andu H.M.,Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition | Siamudaala V.M.,Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area Secretariat | Munyeme M.,University of Zambia | Nalubamba K.S.,University of Zambia
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37 (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. Copyright © 2012 Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu et al.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary science | Year: 2012

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks ((2) = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases | Year: 2012

Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Journal of parasitology research | Year: 2012

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Veterinary medicine international | Year: 2011

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of BTB-free buffaloes for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating BTB free buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2011

Rabies has been present in Zambia since the early years of the 20th century. It is a significant public health problem in Zambia. Domestic dogs accounted for 69.7% (1348/1935) of the samples received for rabies diagnosis for the period 1985-2004. Of the 1069 positive cases confirmed by the fluorescent antibody test, 747 (69.9%) were from domestic dogs, 139 (13.0%) from cattle and 98 (9.2%) from humans. Wildlife samples accounted for 4.5% (87/1935) of the samples tested with the jackal (Canis adustus) being the predominant species. Cases of rabies were highest in Lusaka Province followed by the Copperbelt, Southern and Central Provinces. The monthly distribution of canine rabies showed an average of 2.93 (95% CI 2.59-3.29) dog positive cases per month. The study confirms that rabies is endemic in Zambia and that the domestic dog is the principal maintenance host. The epidemiology and control measures currently used in Zambia are herein discussed highlighting their limitations and successes. Based on the findings obtained from this study we advocate for strengthening the delivery of public health services and that steps must taken to reduce the incidence of rabies in Zambia.


PubMed | Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Journal of pathogens | Year: 2012

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903) mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787) of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n = 973), respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5%) throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.011) with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n = 2,829), it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

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