Section of Anatomy and Pathology

Oslo, Norway

Section of Anatomy and Pathology

Oslo, Norway
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Yousaf M.N.,University of Nordland | Amin A.B.,University of Nordland | Koppang E.O.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Vuolteenaho O.,University of Oulu | Powell M.D.,University of Nordland
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2012

This study describes the location of the primary pacemaker at the sino-atrial (SA) junction and the localization of salmon cardiac peptide (sCP) and ventricular natriuretic peptide (VNP) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The pacemaker tissue appeared lightly stained and composed of: (1) wavy nerve bundles with oval elongated wavy appearing nuclei with pointed ends, (2) ganglion cells (12-22. μm) with granular cytoplasm and (3) wide muscle fibers with large nuclei (modified cardiomyocytes) clearly distinguishing them from the other myocardial cells. Pacemaker tissue was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. Immunoreactivity of natriuretic peptides (sCP and VNP) antisera showed specific staining in pacemaker ganglion cells in addition to the cardiomyocytes. Positive staining with anti-CD3e{open} antisera in the pacemaker ganglion cells is a novel finding in teleosts and is consistent with observations in mammals. In conclusion, the Atlantic salmon pacemaker was shown to be located at the SA node and to harbor sCP and VNP peptides, suggesting a possible neuromodulatory and/or neurotransmitter role for these cardiac hormones within the teleost heart. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Larsen H.A.S.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Austbo L.,Section of Genetics | Rimstad E.,Section of Microbiology | Fjelldal P.G.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2014

The presence of melanin in muscle fillets of farmed salmon represents a considerable quality problem for the salmon industry with major economic concerns. In this study, we have examined the presence of abnormal pigmentation in vaccinated versus unvaccinated Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and evaluated possible differences between diploid and triploid fish. Furthermore, the impact of the smolt production regime at ambient (4.5 °C) versus elevated temperature (16 °C) was investigated. Pigmented muscle spots were analysed for the expression of genes involved in melanization (tyrosinase gene family) and immune-related response in addition to morphological investigations. The proportion of fish with intramuscular melanin deposits was not significantly different between vaccinated and unvaccinated fish, regardless of ploidy. However, an interaction between vaccination and smolt regime was shown, where smoltification at elevated temperature after vaccination increased the number of affected individuals compared with vaccination followed by simulated natural smoltification. Furthermore, there were overall more fish with melanin spots amongst the triploids compared with their diploid counterparts. Transcription of the tyrosinase gene family confirmed an onsite melanogenesis in all pigment spots. The histological examination and the expression of the immune-related genes revealed a chronic polyphasic myopathy that was not affected by vaccination, ploidy or smolt production regime. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Bordi P.,Medical Oncology Unit | Tiseo M.,Medical Oncology Unit | Barbieri F.,Haematology and Respiratory Diseases Clinic | Bavieri M.,Haematology and Respiratory Diseases Clinic | And 9 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: No target therapies are presently available in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We investigated the presence of potentially drugable mutations in the EGFR, c-MET, BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT genes in a retrospective series of SCLC from 2 Italian Institutions. Correlations with immunohistochemical, clinical and outcome features were evaluated. Materials and methods: Genes were studied by direct sequencing of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56 and bcl-2 was assessed. Results: Samples from 113 SCLC patients were analyzed. All cases were wild-type for BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT (data available for 82 patients). Two (1.8%) patients were EGFR-mutated (exon 19 delE746-A750 and exon 21 L858R); both were females, non-smoker and had limited disease. Overall survival of EGFR-mutated patients was 21 months as compared to 11 months in wild-type. Five (4.4%) patients were c-MET-mutated (4 on exon 14: 2 R988C, 1 D990N, 1 D102Y; 1 on exon 17 R1166Q); all were smokers, 3 were males and 4 had extensive disease. Their OS was comparable to wild-type cases (12 vs. 11 months). EGFR and c-MET mutations were mutually exclusive. Gene mutations did not correlate with immunophenotype. Conclusions: Targetable mutations are uncommon in SCLC. EGFR-mutated patients tended to be female and non-smoker and experienced a prolonged OS suggesting a possible positive prognostic effect. c-MET mutations did not affect survival. Target therapy might be considered in EGFR and c-MET-mutated patients. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Haematology and Respiratory Diseases Clinic, Central Hospital of Bolzano, University of Chieti Pescara, Cervical Cancer Screening Unit and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2014

No target therapies are presently available in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We investigated the presence of potentially drugable mutations in the EGFR, c-MET, BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT genes in a retrospective series of SCLC from 2 Italian Institutions. Correlations with immunohistochemical, clinical and outcome features were evaluated.Genes were studied by direct sequencing of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56 and bcl-2 was assessed.Samples from 113 SCLC patients were analyzed. All cases were wild-type for BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT (data available for 82 patients). Two (1.8%) patients were EGFR-mutated (exon 19 delE746-A750 and exon 21 L858R); both were females, non-smoker and had limited disease. Overall survival of EGFR-mutated patients was 21 months as compared to 11 months in wild-type. Five (4.4%) patients were c-MET-mutated (4 on exon 14: 2 R988C, 1 D990N, 1 D102Y; 1 on exon 17 R1166Q); all were smokers, 3 were males and 4 had extensive disease. Their OS was comparable to wild-type cases (12 vs. 11 months). EGFR and c-MET mutations were mutually exclusive. Gene mutations did not correlate with immunophenotype.Targetable mutations are uncommon in SCLC. EGFR-mutated patients tended to be female and non-smoker and experienced a prolonged OS suggesting a possible positive prognostic effect. c-MET mutations did not affect survival. Target therapy might be considered in EGFR and c-MET-mutated patients.


Haugarvoll E.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Haugarvoll E.,Lingalaks AS | Bjerkas I.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Szabo N.J.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

The development of systemic autoimmunity may result as an undesired side-effect following vaccination, and this condition was recently shown to occur in farmed salmon (Salmo salar). Several of previously reported side-effects following vaccination of fish should therefore be reviewed in the light of this condition. Here, organs and pathological changes in three separate groups of fish severely affected by vaccination were investigated by different morphological methods (n= 84). Granulomas or microgranulomas were observed at the injection site and in several organs. Mott cells were observed in all tissues examined. Pannus-like changes with lymphocyte infiltrates were observed in spines. In conclusion, the reactions following vaccination were of a systemic nature that may be explained by a pathogenetic mechanism caused by systemic autoimmunity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Larsen H.A.S.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Austbo L.,Section of Genetics | Konig M.,Section of Genetics | Sorum H.,Section of Microbiology | And 2 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2013

The present study was performed to address putative links between the immune and pigmentary systems. A pigment-producing leukocyte-like cell-line (SHK-1 cells) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was exposed to different temperatures, poly I:C, bacterin or infected with virus (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus or infectious salmon anaemia virus). The effect of this stimulation regarding the transcription-pattern of the tyrosinase gene family (melanin genes) and the immune-related genes MHC class II and IFN-1 was analysed using real-time RT-qPCR. At 10. °C cultivation, tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase remained unregulated. At 15. °C, a moderate up-regulation was induced, while at 20. °C, these genes were up-regulated in an exponential manner over time. Temperature did not affect the transcription of the immune-related genes. Virus infections, poly I:C or bacterin had no influence on the transcription of the melanogenesis-related genes, but triggered the immune-related genes. Our findings revealed no connections between the pigmentary and immune systems, but demonstrated a hereto undiscovered temperature-effect on the tyrosinase gene family. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Arciuli M.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | Fiocco D.,University of Foggia | Cicero R.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | Maida I.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | And 5 more authors.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Melanogenesis is mostly studied in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but much less is known about other pigment cell systems. Liver, spleen, kidney, and other organs of lower vertebrates harbour a visceral pigment cell system with an embryonic origin that differs from that of melanocytes. In teleosts, melanin-containing cells occur in the reticulo-endothelial system and are mainly in the kidney and spleen. The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an ichthyic breeding species of considerable economic importance. The accumulation of pigments in salmon visceral organs and musculature adversely affects the quality of fish products and is a problem for the aquaculture industry. With the aim to reveal novel functions and behaviour of the salmonid extracutaneous pigment system, we investigated aspects of the melanogenic systems in the tissues of Atlantic salmon, as well as in SHK-1 cells, which is a long-term cell line derived from macrophages of the Atlantic salmon head-kidney. We demonstrate that a melanogenic system is present in SHK-1 cells, head-kidney, and spleen tissues. As teleosts lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, the head-kidney and spleen are regarded as the most important secondary lymphoid organs. The detection of tyrosinase activity in lymphoid organs indicates that a link exists between the extracutaneous pigmentary system and the immune system in salmon. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.


Takizawa F.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Koppang E.O.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Ohtani M.,Nihon University | Nakanishi T.,Nihon University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2011

Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon interleukin-4/13A (IL-4/13A) genes were identified. They were found expressed at high level in thymus, gill, and skin, in concert with the transcription factor gene GATA-3. High expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and GATA-3 were also detected in murine thymus, suggesting similar importance of the fish and mammalian homologues for early T cell development. In mammals, combined high expression of IL-4/13 and GATA-3 in tissues other than thymus is mostly indicative of Th2 responses. Th2-skewage may protect fish skin and gill from parasites and from damage by inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. The immune milieus of fish gill and skin are relevant to aquaculture, because these tissues are preferred sites for vaccine administration. The similarities between the immune milieus of fish gill and thymus may reflect an evolutionary relationship, since these tissues map close together lining the gill cavity. Expression patterns of IL-4/13A and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in isolated trout gill cells and pronephrocytes were consistent with Th2 identity of IL-4/13A. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Section of Anatomy and Pathology
Type: | Journal: Veterinary research | Year: 2013

It is widely accepted that melanin formation may play an immunologic role in invertebrates and ectothermic vertebrates. In farmed Atlantic salmon, cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a common viral disease associated with severe cardiac inflammation that may be accompanied by heavy melanisation of the heart. By the use of histology, laser capture microdissection and transcription analysis of tyrosinase genes, we here show that this melanisation is linked to de novo melanogenesis by melanomacrophages, suggesting an active part in the inflammatory reaction. No general systemic activation of the extracutaneous pigmentary system in response to viral infections with affinity to the heart was observed.

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