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Yousaf M.N.,University of Nordland | Amin A.B.,University of Nordland | Koppang E.O.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Vuolteenaho O.,University of Oulu | Powell M.D.,University of Nordland
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2012

This study describes the location of the primary pacemaker at the sino-atrial (SA) junction and the localization of salmon cardiac peptide (sCP) and ventricular natriuretic peptide (VNP) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The pacemaker tissue appeared lightly stained and composed of: (1) wavy nerve bundles with oval elongated wavy appearing nuclei with pointed ends, (2) ganglion cells (12-22. μm) with granular cytoplasm and (3) wide muscle fibers with large nuclei (modified cardiomyocytes) clearly distinguishing them from the other myocardial cells. Pacemaker tissue was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. Immunoreactivity of natriuretic peptides (sCP and VNP) antisera showed specific staining in pacemaker ganglion cells in addition to the cardiomyocytes. Positive staining with anti-CD3e{open} antisera in the pacemaker ganglion cells is a novel finding in teleosts and is consistent with observations in mammals. In conclusion, the Atlantic salmon pacemaker was shown to be located at the SA node and to harbor sCP and VNP peptides, suggesting a possible neuromodulatory and/or neurotransmitter role for these cardiac hormones within the teleost heart. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Takizawa F.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Koppang E.O.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Ohtani M.,Nihon University | Nakanishi T.,Nihon University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2011

Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon interleukin-4/13A (IL-4/13A) genes were identified. They were found expressed at high level in thymus, gill, and skin, in concert with the transcription factor gene GATA-3. High expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and GATA-3 were also detected in murine thymus, suggesting similar importance of the fish and mammalian homologues for early T cell development. In mammals, combined high expression of IL-4/13 and GATA-3 in tissues other than thymus is mostly indicative of Th2 responses. Th2-skewage may protect fish skin and gill from parasites and from damage by inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. The immune milieus of fish gill and skin are relevant to aquaculture, because these tissues are preferred sites for vaccine administration. The similarities between the immune milieus of fish gill and thymus may reflect an evolutionary relationship, since these tissues map close together lining the gill cavity. Expression patterns of IL-4/13A and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in isolated trout gill cells and pronephrocytes were consistent with Th2 identity of IL-4/13A. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Arciuli M.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | Fiocco D.,University of Foggia | Cicero R.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | Maida I.,Sezione di Biologia Medica | And 5 more authors.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Melanogenesis is mostly studied in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but much less is known about other pigment cell systems. Liver, spleen, kidney, and other organs of lower vertebrates harbour a visceral pigment cell system with an embryonic origin that differs from that of melanocytes. In teleosts, melanin-containing cells occur in the reticulo-endothelial system and are mainly in the kidney and spleen. The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an ichthyic breeding species of considerable economic importance. The accumulation of pigments in salmon visceral organs and musculature adversely affects the quality of fish products and is a problem for the aquaculture industry. With the aim to reveal novel functions and behaviour of the salmonid extracutaneous pigment system, we investigated aspects of the melanogenic systems in the tissues of Atlantic salmon, as well as in SHK-1 cells, which is a long-term cell line derived from macrophages of the Atlantic salmon head-kidney. We demonstrate that a melanogenic system is present in SHK-1 cells, head-kidney, and spleen tissues. As teleosts lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, the head-kidney and spleen are regarded as the most important secondary lymphoid organs. The detection of tyrosinase activity in lymphoid organs indicates that a link exists between the extracutaneous pigmentary system and the immune system in salmon. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Haugarvoll E.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Haugarvoll E.,Lingalaks AS | Bjerkas I.,Section of Anatomy and Pathology | Szabo N.J.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

The development of systemic autoimmunity may result as an undesired side-effect following vaccination, and this condition was recently shown to occur in farmed salmon (Salmo salar). Several of previously reported side-effects following vaccination of fish should therefore be reviewed in the light of this condition. Here, organs and pathological changes in three separate groups of fish severely affected by vaccination were investigated by different morphological methods (n= 84). Granulomas or microgranulomas were observed at the injection site and in several organs. Mott cells were observed in all tissues examined. Pannus-like changes with lymphocyte infiltrates were observed in spines. In conclusion, the reactions following vaccination were of a systemic nature that may be explained by a pathogenetic mechanism caused by systemic autoimmunity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bordi P.,Medical Oncology Unit | Tiseo M.,Medical Oncology Unit | Barbieri F.,Haematology and Respiratory Diseases Clinic | Bavieri M.,Haematology and Respiratory Diseases Clinic | And 9 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: No target therapies are presently available in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We investigated the presence of potentially drugable mutations in the EGFR, c-MET, BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT genes in a retrospective series of SCLC from 2 Italian Institutions. Correlations with immunohistochemical, clinical and outcome features were evaluated. Materials and methods: Genes were studied by direct sequencing of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56 and bcl-2 was assessed. Results: Samples from 113 SCLC patients were analyzed. All cases were wild-type for BRAF, KRAS, PDGFRa and c-KIT (data available for 82 patients). Two (1.8%) patients were EGFR-mutated (exon 19 delE746-A750 and exon 21 L858R); both were females, non-smoker and had limited disease. Overall survival of EGFR-mutated patients was 21 months as compared to 11 months in wild-type. Five (4.4%) patients were c-MET-mutated (4 on exon 14: 2 R988C, 1 D990N, 1 D102Y; 1 on exon 17 R1166Q); all were smokers, 3 were males and 4 had extensive disease. Their OS was comparable to wild-type cases (12 vs. 11 months). EGFR and c-MET mutations were mutually exclusive. Gene mutations did not correlate with immunophenotype. Conclusions: Targetable mutations are uncommon in SCLC. EGFR-mutated patients tended to be female and non-smoker and experienced a prolonged OS suggesting a possible positive prognostic effect. c-MET mutations did not affect survival. Target therapy might be considered in EGFR and c-MET-mutated patients. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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