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Porto Alegre, Brazil

Osmari E.K.,Secretary of Agriculture | Cecato U.,State University of Maringa | Macedo F.A.F.,State University of Maringa | Souza N.E.,State University of Maringa
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional indices of milk fat of 1/2 Boer × Saanen goats on diets supplemented with three roughages. Eighteen goats under a semi-intensive system were divided into groups, and fed an ad libitum supplement of sorghum silage, maize silage or mulberry hay. Nutritional indices were determined from three milk samples taken during winter (August) and spring-summer (average of November and December). Using mixed statistical models, the animal error was computed as a random effect. The season and supplement were fixed. The winter season was markedly better for all variables (P< 0.01), while short-chain fatty acids did not change (P> 0.05). Interactions only occurred between the thrombogenic index and the C12:0/C10:0 ratio, where the higher values that are potentially more harmful to human health were obtained in the spring-summer season in animals fed maize silage, followed by the averages of other treatments during the same season. The values for unsaturated fatty acids, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index indicated differences between supplements, with better values for goats fed with sorghum silage and mulberry hay. Grazing Boer × Saanen goats supplemented with mulberry hay or sorghum silage provided milk with better lipid indices for the prevention of human coronary diseases. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


News Article
Site: http://www.sej.org/headlines/list

"On Jan. 20, the U.S. Department of the Navy will host a kickoff event, launching the first vessels of its Great Green Fleet at the San Diego Naval Air Station North Island, Carrier Pier. The GGF centerpiece is a carrier strike group—including an aircraft carrier and Arleigh Burke-class destroyer—deploying using energy conservation technologies, operating procedures and alternative energy in the course of its regular scheduled deployment in 2016. During the event, Navy and Marine Corps energy displays will also be presented on the pier. “On the shore, the displays will showcase some of our energy technologies,” said Lt. Chika Onyekanne, spokesperson with the Navy Office of Information. “It gives the opportunity for those present to see some of those things, talk to subject matter experts about energy and what it means for us.” Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus will be joined by Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack to speak at the event and answer questions."


Libardoni F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Machado G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gressler L.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Kowalski A.P.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 4 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine strangles and to identify associated risk factors for this disease through a cross-sectional study of nasal swabs. Nasal swabs (n = 1010) from healthy equines (absence of nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy and cough) from 341 farms were plated on 5% blood agar; of these horses, 24 were identified as positive for Streptococcus equi through isolation, PCR and DNA sequencing. The estimated prevalence for individual animals was 2.3%, and for herds, it was 5.86%. Statistical analysis identified the following as associated risk factors: the number of group events that were attended by the equines (PR: 1.06); the sharing of food containers (PR: 3.74); and at least one previous positive diagnosis of strangles on the farm (PR: 3.20). These results constitute an epidemiological contribution to the horse industry and may support measures for the future control of the disease. © 2015. Source


News Article
Site: http://www.treehugger.com/feeds/category/aviation/

We recently covered the announcement that United Airlines was powering scheduled flights with biofuels made by AltAir Paramount, “a California-based refinery that converts sustainable feedstocks, like non-edible natural oils and agricultural wastes, into low-carbon, renewable jet fuel, according to United.” The first comment on the post asked "what is the source of this bio-fuel?" On TreeHugger we don’t like to leave those kinds of questions hanging, and found that the AltAir plant makes its fuel from beef tallow and pig fat, which are not considered edible oils. The US Navy made a big deal of an order from AltAir, noting that fuel made from tallow is “drop-in”- chemically identical to the petroleum based fuel it replaces. It was rather proud of the fact that it was using beef tallow as a feedstock, with Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack announcing: Steve Csonka, executive director of the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) tells food website Munchies why beef fat is used: “The process is pretty robust, and there are different manufacturers who are playing in this space. We are primarily talking about product that’s coming out of slaughterhouses, from the first processing that occurs prior to finished meat.” An AltAir Fuels spokesperson said “that beef tallow fuel is a “drop-in diesel,” meaning it can be directly substituted, gallon-for-gallon, for traditional petroleum-based diesel.” Csonka explains why biofuel is better for the environment: From the carbon dioxide perspective, these fuels are identical. So if I burn a gallon of jet fuel and I burn a gallon of HEFA (hydro processed esters and fatty acids) fuel, the carbon dioxide that comes out of the tailpipe of the airplane is identical,” he said. “The difference comes from the fact that I’ve produced the synthetic or renewable jet fuel without actually pulling additional carbon molecules out of the ground, or I did it at a substantially reduced level versus what I would have had to pull out of the ground if I just wanted to make petroleum-based jet fuel. On the United site, they do not mention beef tallow. They only say: But does that lifecycle analysis take into account the carbon footprint of raising cows, which are responsible for seven percent of the world’s carbon emissions? When it comes to chemistry, it’s perfectly good jet fuel. The beef tallow is a waste product so one can make a case for ignoring the carbon footprint of making it. Given the impact that raising cattle has, from its use of land and water to the carbon emitted raising it, I suspect that a lot of people would look less favorably at United’s initiative if they knew they were flying on beef tallow. And I am sure a lot of flying vegetarians wouldn’t be too happy either.


Machado G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Santos D.V.,Secretary of Agriculture | Kohek I.,Secretary of Agriculture | Stein M.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

A cross-sectional study based on a planned probabilistic sampling was carried out to estimate animal and flock prevalence of Brucella ovis in rams, as well as to determine risk factors at the flock level. Data regarding the flocks were collected by means of a questionnaire applied on 705 farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using one-stage cluster sampling. From the 705 flocks, 20 (2.5%, CI95%: 2.0-3.1%) had at least one positive ram. At the animal level, out of 1800 rams, 52 were positive (2.89%, CI95%: 0.4-5.3%). Statistical analysis identified the following as risk factors: average age of rams in the flocks (PR: 1.99, CI95%: 1.19-3.32); farms larger than 5km2 (500ha) on extension area (PR: 7.46CI95%: 2.03-27.43); and the lack of lambing paddocks (PR: 5.56, CI95%: 1.70-18.11). This study provided relevant information for authorities to elaborate plans for the first Brazilian state based B. ovis disease control and eradication program. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that shows the importance of lambing paddocks in order to keep pre-lambing and lambing ewes away from the rest of the flock, the lack of this infrastructure was considered an important risk factor for B. ovis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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