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Carrion-Tacuri J.,University of Seville | Berjano R.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Guerrero G.,Central University of Ecuador | Figueroa E.,University of Seville | And 2 more authors.
Weed Biology and Management | Year: 2014

Fruit set is highly relevant to a plant's reproductive success. Fruit set can vary due to predation on flowers, pollinator services and/or resource availability. Reproductive success, measured as the fruit set of the invasive Lantana camara and the endemic Lantana peduncularis in the cool-dry season and the warm-wet season of the Galapagos Islands, was studied. Also, autonomous self-pollination ability and seed viability were probed for both species. Furthermore, flower visitors and their activity were registered for both species during the warm-wet season. Lantana peduncularis produced fewer flowers per inflorescence, but had a higher fruit set in the cool-dry season, compared to the warm-wet season. In contrast, the fruit set in L.camara did not change seasonally. The fruit set in L.camara was higher than in L.peduncularis in the warm-wet season. Moreover, ~18% of the bagged flowers of the invasive Lantana produced fruits by autonomous self-pollination, while for the endemic Lantana, the rate of autonomous self-pollination was very low. More than 80% of the fruits for both species had at least one viable seed per fruit. The number of pollinators and their frequency, inflorescence- and flower-visiting rates and the duration of the visit per flower were higher in the invasive Lantana than in the endemic one. The endemic Lepidoptera Urbanus galapagensis (the main pollinator of both Lantana species) and the introduced Hymenia perspectalis were observed pollinating both Lantana species. These results indicate that the alien L.camara is more attractive to pollinators and it has reproductive advantages regarding fruit set in comparison with L.peduncularis, factors that contribute to the colonization pattern of this invasive species. © 2014 Weed Science Society of Japan.

Serra G.,Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme | Bruschini C.,University of Florence | Peske L.,Slezska 43 | Kubsa A.,Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society | And 2 more authors.
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2013

The long-range, migratory eastern relict population of Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremita has been steadily declining since the time of discovery in 2002, despite the protection programme in place at the breeding grounds in Syria. Assessing the ecological conditions and threats along the migration route and at the wintering site, both discovered in 2006, has become a priority for this Critically Endangered species. Adult ibises spent the winter at the same site on the central Ethiopian highland plateau, from August until mid-February during five consecutive winters (2006-2011). The wintering site was surveyed during four field visits and assessed through a spatial analysis of 1,067 satellite locations. The site is in an agro-pastoral landscape, inhabited by a settled community of people living in relatively poor and isolated conditions. Home range analysis based on kernel distributions showed that the bald ibises used a core range area of 9.1-19.0 km2 (confirmed by direct visual observations in the field) and an extended range area of 61.0-126.1 km 2. These figures are c.20 and 60 times smaller, respectively, than those calculated for the breeding site in Syria. Eighty-one percent of the core area in Ethiopia was used in all five years confirming the birds' fidelity to this wintering site. Ibises preferred to forage in wet or dry pastures and in recently cut hayfields, and avoided tall grass, uncut hayfields and cultivation. Despite dependence on human-created habitats, human disturbance observed in the field was minimal. The main short-term threat for the ibises was judged to be the potential raising of attention on the part of the local community specifically towards these few individual ibises. In the medium term, the main threat comes from the conversion of pastures into crops and the potential use of fertilisers and pesticides. © BirdLife International 2013.

Carrion-Tacuri J.,University of Seville | Berjano R.,University of Seville | Guerrero G.,Central University of Ecuador | Figueroa E.,University of Seville | And 2 more authors.
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012

Observations on birds feeding on fruits of the invasive shrub Lantana camara (Supirrosa) were conducted on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos (Ecuador) in the Dry Zone during the 2009 dry season. The endemic ground finches Geospiza magnirostris (Large Ground Finch) and G. fortis (Medium Ground Finch) were recorded eating Lantana seeds with G. fortis the main consumer (>90% of records). Both finch species crushed the seeds and ate the embryos, discarding the exocarp and empty seed coats. They also dropped entire fruits to the ground, which could contribute to short-distance dispersal, but both finches also consumed fruits of L. camara on the ground. Density of L. camara seedlings under adult plants was higher in rockier areas than in bare soil since seeds were less accessible to predators and/or found more suitable microsites for germination and establishment. Both species of finches serve as short-distance dispersers, but mainly as seed predators of L. camara fruits. © 2012 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

Jupiter S.D.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Jenkins A.P.,Edith Cowan University | Lee Long W.J.,Alluvium Consulting | Maxwell S.L.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
Pacific Conservation Biology | Year: 2014

We propose a new approach for island-wide planning and implementation of ecosystem management in the Pacific, recognizing a lack of replicability, sustainability and cost-effectiveness in other approaches. 'Integrated island management' (IIM) operates through coordinated networks of institutions and communities focused on sustainable and adaptive management of natural resources. IIM enables simultaneous and cost-effective achievement of ecosystem-based management, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction while conserving biodiversity, maintaining ecosystem services and securing human health and well-being. We present ten guiding principles for IIM, and then use these to evaluate 36 case studies from the Pacific islands. Most case studies were pilot or demonstration projects with little evidence of planning to ensure long-term financial and human capacity needs were sustained, beyond the life of the projects, or could be replicated at significant scales. Management outcomes in the Pacific will be enhanced by: (1) building on foundations of customary management practice and social networks; (2) working holistically across relevant ecological and governance scales, through coordinated but decentralized and nested institutions; (3) empowering local communities to participate in integrated planning and implementation; and (4) embedding IIM practice into national systems for long-term sustainability and replication. These also ultimately depend on the context and externalities, beyond the control of practitioners. Cost-effectiveness and appropriateness are also critical for successful IIM in the Pacific islands but ultimately there is little alternative for effective biodiversity conservation.

Murray L.,University of Cambridge | Gurbisz C.,University of Cambridge | Gibson D.,Hampton University | Woerner J.,Indiana University | Carruthers T.,Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme
Eos | Year: 2012

Scientists talk to scientists and educators talk to educators, but seldom do the two camps interact in a collaborative fashion. This gap between science and education results in poor student achievement and a general lack of interest in sciences. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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