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Lucas H.,York University | Lucas H.,University of Lleida | Fifita S.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Talab I.,Africa EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme RECP EUEI PDF. | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017

The Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Besides, they are some of the most dependent on imported petroleum products in the world, the use of renewable energy (RE) can help minimize the economic risk associated with the price volatility of fossil fuels. The region is increasingly adopting renewable energy (RE) targets and policies. Successful examples of RE deployment in the Pacific SIDS exist; however, many barriers persist and prevent the use of the region's RE resources in a larger scale. Challenges for RE deployment in islands can be grouped in six categories: i) lack of RE data, ii) need for policy and regulatory frameworks, iii) scarcity of financial opportunities, iv) lack of human resources, v) costly infrastructure, and vi) socio-cultural impediments. Based on a survey conducted among main stakeholders in the region, within the framework of the Pacific Region Capacity Building Initiative of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) carried out in cooperation with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), this paper identifies the specific characteristics of these challenges in the context of the Pacific SIDS, provide a qualitative assessment and identifies recommendations to overcome these challenges. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ruiz J.,Tecnalia | Batty A.,Archipelago Marine Research | Chavance P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Mcelderry H.,Archipelago Marine Research | And 4 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2015

The difficulty of ensuring adequate statistical coverage of whole fleets is a challenge for the implementation of observer programmes and may reduce the usefulness of the data they obtain for management purposes. This makes it necessary to find cost-effective alternatives. Electronic monitoring (EM) systems are being used in some fisheries as an alternative or a complement to human observers. The objective of this study was to test the use and reliability of EM on the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery. To achieve this objective, seven trips of tuna purse seiners operating in the three Oceans were closely monitored to compare the information provided by EM and on-board observers to determine if EM can reliably document fishing effort, set type, tuna catch, and bycatch. Total tuna catch per set was not significantly different between EM and observer datasets; however, regarding species composition, only main species matched between EM and observers. Success on set-type identification using EM varied between 98.3 and 56.3%, depending on the camera placement. Overall, bycatch species were underestimated by EM, but large bodied species, such as billfishes, were well documented. The analyses in this study showed that EM can be used to determine the fishing effort (number of sets) and total tuna catch as reliably as observers can. Set-type identification also had very promising results, but indicated that refinement of the methods is still needed. To be fully comparable with observer data, improvements for accurately estimating the bycatch will need to be developed in the application and use of the EM system. Operational aspects that need to be improved for an EM programme to be implemented include standardizing installation and on-board catch handling methodology as well as improvements in video technology deployment. © International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014.


Davis R.I.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | Kokoa P.,National Agricultural Quarantine and Inspection Authority NAQIA | Jones L.M.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | MacKie J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2012

Nested PCR indicated a possible causal relationship between presence of phytoplasmas and unusual wilt symptoms in cooking banana plants in PNG. Sequence analysis showed that phytoplasmas from diseased banana plants in four Provinces were unique, but most closely related to a phytoplasma associated with a new lethal disease of coconuts in PNG's Madang Province, related to phytoplasmas in the 16SrIV group. © 2012 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.


Kohlitz J.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Hasan T.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Khatri K.,World Health Organization | Sokota A.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2013

A non-governmental organisation has distributed point-of-use water filtering units in the Western Division of Fiji. We sought to understand filter utilisation and water quality: both water flowing directly out of filters and stored water. We surveyed 270 households and 6 schools on filter use and performed hydrogen sulphide bacterial indicator testing on 24 water samples directly from filters and 37 stored water samples. Our response rate was 95%. Of these, only half (52%) reported consistently filtering their drinking water. Very few (8%) reported consistent use when preparing kava, a traditional drink. Factors associated with limited filter use included lost or broken filter parts (22%) (p < 0.05) and perception of source water quality as 44% of respondents who believed their source water was safe to drink reported consistent filter use compared to 68% of respondents who did not (p < 0.01). Bacterial indicator testing using hydrogen sulphide paper-strips showed that most water samples directly from the filter (71%) and from storage vessels (76%) were contaminated. Limited levels of use and high levels of contamination in both water directly from the filter and stored water raise serious questions as to the benefit of the filter even as an interim water quality solution in this setting. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Taibi E.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Gielen D.,International Energy Agency | Bazilian M.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation UNIDO
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

To date, insufficient attention has been paid to the potential of renewable energy resources in industrial applications. Our analysis suggests that up to 21% of final energy demand and feedstock-use in the manufacturing industry sector could be of renewable origin by 2050, a five-fold increase over current levels in absolute terms. This estimate is considerably higher than other recent global scenario studies. In addition, if a 50% share of renewables in power generation is assumed, the share of direct and indirect renewable energy use rises to 31% in 2050. Our analysis further suggests that bioenergy and biofeedstocks can constitute three-quarters of the direct renewables use in this sector by 2050. The remainder is roughly evenly divided between solar heating and heat pumps. The potential for solar cooling is considered to be limited. While low-temperature solar process heat can reach cost-effectiveness today in locations with good insolation, some bioenergy applications will require a CO2 price even on the longer term. Biomass feedstock for synthetic organic materials will require a CO2 price up to USD 100/t CO 2, or even more if embodied carbon is not considered properly in CO2 accounts. Future fossil fuel prices and bioenergy prices in addition to the development of feedstock commodity markets for biomass will be critical. Decision makers are recommended to pay more attention to the potential for renewables in industry. Finally, we propose the development of a detailed technology roadmap to explore this potential further and discuss key issues that need to be elaborated in such a framework. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Laurans Y.,Institute du Developppement Durable et des Relations Internationales Iddri | Pascal N.,CNRS Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory | Binet T.,University of Portsmouth | Brander L.,VU University Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

The economic valuation of coral reefs ecosystem services is currently seen as a promising approach to demonstrate the benefits of sustainable management of coral ecosystems to policymakers and to provide useful information for improved decisions. Most coral reefs economic studies have been conducted in the United States, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, and only a few have covered the South Pacific region. In this region, coral reefs are essential assets for small island developing states as well as for developed countries. Accordingly, a series of ecosystem services valuations has been carried out recently in the South Pacific, to try and supply decision-makers with new information.Applying ecosystem services valuation to the specific ecological, social, economic and cultural contexts of the South Pacific is however not straightforward. This paper analyses how extant valuations address the various management challenges of coral reef regions in general and more specifically for the South Pacific. Bearing in mind that economic valuation has to match policy-making contexts, we emphasize a series of specific considerations when conducting and applying ecosystem services valuation in South Pacific ecological and social contexts. Finally, the paper examines the decision-making situations in which extant valuations took place. We conclude that, although ecosystem valuations have been effectively used as a means to raise awareness with respect to coral reef conservation, methodologies will have to be further developed, with multidisciplinary inputs, if they are to provide valuable inputs in local and technical decision-making. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Koskela J.,Third University of Rome | Vinceti B.,Third University of Rome | Dvorak W.,North Carolina State University | Bush D.,CSIRO | And 9 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

Over the last 200 years, genetic resources of forest trees have been increasingly transferred, within and outside of species' native distribution ranges, for forestry and for research and development (R&D). Transferred germplasm has been deployed to grow trees for numerous purposes, ranging from the production of wood and non-wood products to the provision of ecosystem services such as the restoration of forests for biodiversity conservation. The oldest form of R&D, provenance trials, revealed early on that seed origin has a major influence on the performance of planted trees. International provenance trials have been essential for selecting seed sources for reforestation and for improving tree germplasm through breeding. Many tree breeding programmes were initiated in the 1950s, but as one round of testing and selection typically takes decades, the most advanced of them are only in their third cycle. Recent advances in forest genomics have increased the understanding of the genetic basis of different traits, but it is unlikely that molecular marker-assisted approaches will quickly replace traditional tree breeding methods. Furthermore, provenance trials and progeny tests are still needed to complement new research approaches. Currently, seed of boreal and temperate trees for reforestation purposes are largely obtained from improved sources. The situation is similar for fast growing tropical and subtropical trees grown in plantations, but in the case of tropical hardwoods and many agroforestry trees, only limited tested or improved seed sources are available. Transfers of tree germplasm involve some risks of spreading pests and diseases, of introducing invasive tree species and of polluting the genetic make-up of already present tree populations. Many of these risks have been underestimated in the past, but they are now better understood and managed. Relatively few tree species used for forestry have become invasive, and the risk of spreading pests and diseases while transferring seed is considerably lower than when moving live plants. The implementation of the Nagoya Protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) may significantly change current transfer practices in the forestry sector by increasing transaction costs and the time needed to lawfully obtain forest genetic resources for R&D purposes. Many countries are likely to struggle to establish a well-functioning ABS regulatory system, slowing down the process of obtaining the necessary documentation for exchange. This is unfortunate, as climate change, outbreaks of pests and diseases, and continual pressure to support productivity, increase the need for transferring tree germplasm and accelerating R&D. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Clua E.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Clua E.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | Seret B.,French Natural History Museum
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2010

The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Bosserelle C.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Kruger J.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Movono M.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Reddy S.,University of The South Pacific
Australian Coasts and Ports 2015 Conference | Year: 2015

The roaring winds of the Southern Ocean and the Tasman Sea can generate some large swells, big enough to cause inundation on the Coral Coast in the south west of Viti Levu in Fiji, some 3000 km to the north. These inundation events are sometimes associated with tsunami-like long waves that hit the shore and inundate the coast with brute force. These are locally known as loka waves. To understand the origin of the loka waves and how they become so destructive in a fringing reef environment, this research monitored the waves and water levels, for 2 years, at 4 locations across the reef at a pilot site in Maui Bay on the Coral Coast of Fiji. In order to test the size of waves necessary to cause coastal inundation, a validated numerical model, XBeach, was used to simulate the development, propagation and dissipation of these infragravity waves using different water level scenarios. The result of this analysis is intended as a predictive tool to evaluate the risk of coastal inundation from ocean surface waves that can be used to support an early warning system and coastal management tool for both the tourism industry and coastal communities on the Coral Coast.


Davis R.I.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Ruabete T.K.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

This paper provides an updated listing of plant virus and viroid records and the first consolidated listing of phytoplasma records in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories served by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. These are American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Pitcairn Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna. An interpretative opinion on the available data, based on the authors' field working experience in all of the larger and most of the smaller countries and territories, has been provided. © 2010 Australasian Plant Pathology Society.

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