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Laurans Y.,Institute du Developppement Durable et des Relations Internationales Iddri | Pascal N.,CNRS Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory | Binet T.,University of Portsmouth | Brander L.,VU University Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

The economic valuation of coral reefs ecosystem services is currently seen as a promising approach to demonstrate the benefits of sustainable management of coral ecosystems to policymakers and to provide useful information for improved decisions. Most coral reefs economic studies have been conducted in the United States, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, and only a few have covered the South Pacific region. In this region, coral reefs are essential assets for small island developing states as well as for developed countries. Accordingly, a series of ecosystem services valuations has been carried out recently in the South Pacific, to try and supply decision-makers with new information.Applying ecosystem services valuation to the specific ecological, social, economic and cultural contexts of the South Pacific is however not straightforward. This paper analyses how extant valuations address the various management challenges of coral reef regions in general and more specifically for the South Pacific. Bearing in mind that economic valuation has to match policy-making contexts, we emphasize a series of specific considerations when conducting and applying ecosystem services valuation in South Pacific ecological and social contexts. Finally, the paper examines the decision-making situations in which extant valuations took place. We conclude that, although ecosystem valuations have been effectively used as a means to raise awareness with respect to coral reef conservation, methodologies will have to be further developed, with multidisciplinary inputs, if they are to provide valuable inputs in local and technical decision-making. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Taibi E.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Gielen D.,International Energy Agency | Bazilian M.,United Nations Industrial Development Organisation UNIDO
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

To date, insufficient attention has been paid to the potential of renewable energy resources in industrial applications. Our analysis suggests that up to 21% of final energy demand and feedstock-use in the manufacturing industry sector could be of renewable origin by 2050, a five-fold increase over current levels in absolute terms. This estimate is considerably higher than other recent global scenario studies. In addition, if a 50% share of renewables in power generation is assumed, the share of direct and indirect renewable energy use rises to 31% in 2050. Our analysis further suggests that bioenergy and biofeedstocks can constitute three-quarters of the direct renewables use in this sector by 2050. The remainder is roughly evenly divided between solar heating and heat pumps. The potential for solar cooling is considered to be limited. While low-temperature solar process heat can reach cost-effectiveness today in locations with good insolation, some bioenergy applications will require a CO2 price even on the longer term. Biomass feedstock for synthetic organic materials will require a CO2 price up to USD 100/t CO 2, or even more if embodied carbon is not considered properly in CO2 accounts. Future fossil fuel prices and bioenergy prices in addition to the development of feedstock commodity markets for biomass will be critical. Decision makers are recommended to pay more attention to the potential for renewables in industry. Finally, we propose the development of a detailed technology roadmap to explore this potential further and discuss key issues that need to be elaborated in such a framework. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clua E.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC | Seret B.,French Natural History Museum
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2010

The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ruiz J.,Tecnalia | Batty A.,Archipelago Marine Research | Chavance P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Mcelderry H.,Archipelago Marine Research | And 4 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2015

The difficulty of ensuring adequate statistical coverage of whole fleets is a challenge for the implementation of observer programmes and may reduce the usefulness of the data they obtain for management purposes. This makes it necessary to find cost-effective alternatives. Electronic monitoring (EM) systems are being used in some fisheries as an alternative or a complement to human observers. The objective of this study was to test the use and reliability of EM on the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery. To achieve this objective, seven trips of tuna purse seiners operating in the three Oceans were closely monitored to compare the information provided by EM and on-board observers to determine if EM can reliably document fishing effort, set type, tuna catch, and bycatch. Total tuna catch per set was not significantly different between EM and observer datasets; however, regarding species composition, only main species matched between EM and observers. Success on set-type identification using EM varied between 98.3 and 56.3%, depending on the camera placement. Overall, bycatch species were underestimated by EM, but large bodied species, such as billfishes, were well documented. The analyses in this study showed that EM can be used to determine the fishing effort (number of sets) and total tuna catch as reliably as observers can. Set-type identification also had very promising results, but indicated that refinement of the methods is still needed. To be fully comparable with observer data, improvements for accurately estimating the bycatch will need to be developed in the application and use of the EM system. Operational aspects that need to be improved for an EM programme to be implemented include standardizing installation and on-board catch handling methodology as well as improvements in video technology deployment. © International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014.

Davis R.I.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | Kokoa P.,National Agricultural Quarantine and Inspection Authority NAQIA | Jones L.M.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | MacKie J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2012

Nested PCR indicated a possible causal relationship between presence of phytoplasmas and unusual wilt symptoms in cooking banana plants in PNG. Sequence analysis showed that phytoplasmas from diseased banana plants in four Provinces were unique, but most closely related to a phytoplasma associated with a new lethal disease of coconuts in PNG's Madang Province, related to phytoplasmas in the 16SrIV group. © 2012 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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