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Langlois E.V.,University of Montreal | Campbell K.,Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity | Prieur-Richard A.-H.,French Natural History Museum | Karesh W.B.,Ecohealth Alliance | And 2 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

In June 2012, Brazil hosted Rio+20, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) marking the 20th anniversary of the 1992 Earth Summit. The Rio+20 outcome document entitled The future we want provides general guidance to shape sustainable development policies, but fell short of providing legally binding agreements or pragmatic goals. Negotiators agreed to develop a process for the establishment of new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), building upon the Millennium Development Goals, and setting the foundation for the post-2015 UN development agenda. Our objective is to argue that discussions beyond Rio+20 and toward the adoption of SDGs offer a critical opportunity to re-assess the major challenges for global health and sustainable development. There is an urgent need to translate the general aspirations put forth by Rio+20 into concrete health outcomes and greater health equity. The way toward the post-2015 SDGs will likely be more effective if it highlights the full gamut of linkages between ecosystem processes, anthropogenic environmental changes (climate change, biodiversity loss, and land use), socio-economic changes, and global health. Negotiations beyond Rio+20 should strongly acknowledge the global health benefits of biodiversity protection and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, which reduce diseases of poverty and protect the health of the most vulnerable. We argue that health and ecosystems are inextricably linked to all development sectors and that health should remain a critical priority for the upcoming SDGs in the context of global environmental change. © 2012 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source

Pereira H.M.,University of Lisbon | Ferrier S.,CSIRO | Walters M.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Geller G.N.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | And 26 more authors.
Science | Year: 2013

A global system of harmonized observations is needed to inform scientists and policy-makers. Source

Machalaba C.,Ecohealth Alliance | Machalaba C.,City University of New York | Romanelli C.,Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity | Stoett P.,Concordia University at Montreal | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Global Health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Climate change has myriad implications for the health of humans, our ecosystems, and the ecological processes that sustain them. Projections of rising greenhouse gas emissions suggest increasing direct and indirect burden of infectious and noninfectious disease, effects on food and water security, and other societal disruptions. As the effects of climate change cannot be isolated from social and ecological determinants of disease that will mitigate or exacerbate forecasted health outcomes, multidisciplinary collaboration is critically needed. OBJECTIVES The aim of this article was to review the links between climate change and its upstream drivers (ie, processes leading to greenhouse gas emissions) and health outcomes, and identify existing opportunities to leverage more integrated global health and climate actions to prevent, prepare for, and respond to anthropogenic pressures. METHODS We conducted a literature review of current and projected health outcomes associated with climate change, drawing on findings and our collective expertise to review opportunities for adaptation and mitigation across disciplines. FINDINGS Health outcomes related to climate change affect a wide range of stakeholders, providing ready collaborative opportunities for interventions, which can be differentiated by addressing the upstream drivers leading to climate change or the downstream effects of climate change itself. CONCLUSIONS Although health professionals are challenged with risks from climate change and its drivers, the adverse health outcomes cannot be resolved by the public health community alone. A phase change in global health is needed to move from a passive responder in partnership with other societal sectors to drive innovative alternatives. It is essential for global health to step outside of its traditional boundaries to engage with other stakeholders to develop policy and practical solutions to mitigate disease burden of climate change and its drivers; this will also yield compound benefits that help address other health, environmental, and societal challenges. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Welcomme R.L.,Imperial College London | Cowx I.G.,University of Hull | Coates D.,Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity | Bene C.,Worldfish Center | And 3 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Marques A.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Marques A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Pereira H.M.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Pereira H.M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 22 more authors.
Basic and Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

In 2010, the parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 with the mission of halting biodiversity loss and enhance the benefits it provides to people. The 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets (Aichi Targets), which are included in the Strategic Plan, are organized under five Strategic Goals, and provide coherent guidance on how to achieve it. Halfway through the Strategic Plan, it is time to prioritize actions in order to achieve the best possible outcomes for the Aichi Targets in 2020. Actions to achieve one target may influence other targets (downstream interactions); in turn a target may be influenced by actions taken to attain other targets (upstream interactions). We explore the interactions among targets and the time-lags between implemented measures and desired outcomes to develop a framework that can reduce the overall burden associated with the implementation of the Strategic Plan. We identified the targets addressing the underlying drivers of biodiversity loss and the targets aimed at enhancing the implementation of the Strategic Plan as having the highest level of downstream interactions. Targets aimed at improving the status of biodiversity and safeguarding ecosystems followed by targets aimed at reducing the direct pressures on biodiversity and enhancing the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services, were identified as having the highest levels of upstream interactions. Perhaps one of the most challenging aspects of the Strategic Plan is the need to balance actions for its long-term sustainability with the need for urgent actions to halt biodiversity loss. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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