Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA

Colombia

Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA

Colombia
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Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Escobar-Armel P.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA | Manzur P.,Pontifical Xavierian University | And 2 more authors.
Primates | Year: 2014

We analyzed 115 Saguinus leucopus, from four Colombian departments (Antioquia, Bolivar, Caldas and Tolima), for 701 bp of the mt COII gene and at 10 microsatellite loci to estimate gene diversity levels, possible molecular subspecies and historical demographic changes in this species. This endemic Colombian species showed an elevated gene diversity in this gene, although its geographical distribution is very restrictive and extremely threatened by habitat fragmentation. The mt COII gene did not show any geographical structure in the distribution of the haplotypes within this species, but it did show a noteworthy population expansion throughout the history of this species. A Bayesian analysis showed that the haplotype diversification of this species began around 1.6 million years ago (MYA), whilst a haplotype network gave the beginning of this diversification at around 0.5-0.6 MYA. Forty-seven individuals out of the 115 were analyzed for 10 DNA microsatellites. The genetic diversity was relatively elevated for this kind of marker too, and comparable to that found in other Neotropical monkeys with a wider geographical distribution. Two gene pools were detected with the microsatellites, one in the northern distribution area (Antioquia) and the other in the southern distribution area (Tolima). No tests detected any bottleneck affecting this population; however, two procedures (k test and Kimmel et al. 1998 test) detected significant population expansion for the microsatellite markers, like that seen with the mtCOII gene. © 2014 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan.


Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Castillo M.I.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Ledezma A.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA | Vasquez C.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Rodriguez K.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Castillo M.I.,Pontifical Xavierian University
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2010

Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae) seized in Bogota, Colombia. Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1- For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2- For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat), one of them (A. vociferans) was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that illegal traffic of animals is arriving to Colombia from other South-American countries). 3- Out 14 Cebus albifrons sequenced, two belonged to the geographical area of C. a. versicolor, one to C. a. pleei, 10 to C. a. leucocephalus and one could be not assigned because its sequence yielded a great genetic divergence with respect to the other specimens sequenced of this species. 4- The two Cebus capucinus sequenced showed to be associated to a gene pool found in the Northern of Chocó, Sucre and Córdoba Departments. 5- Out 11 Cebus apella sequenced, 10 showed to belong to the gene pool presented in the Colombian Eastern Llanos and highly related (but differentiable) to Cebus apella apella from the French Guyana. It could be named C. a. fatuellus sensu Groves (2001). One exemplar sequenced could be not related with the other C. apella analyzed, nor the related taxa to the aforementioned species (C. a. paraguayanus =C. cay; C. xanthosternos; C. nigritus).


Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Luengas-Villamil K.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental SDA | de Thoisy B.,Institute Pasteur Of La Guyane | Galvez H.,Instituto Veterinario Of Investigaciones Tropicales Y Of Altura
Primates | Year: 2015

Some previous genetic studies have been performed to resolve the molecular phylogenetics of the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). However, these studies did not show consensus in how many taxa are within this genus and what the relationships among them are. For this reason, we sequenced 2,237 base pairs of the mt COI and COII genes in 218 Saimiri individuals. All, less 12 S. sciureus sciureus from French Guyana, were sampled in the wild. These samples represented all the living Saimiri taxa recognized. There were four main findings of this study. (1) Our analysis detected 17 different Saimiri groups: albigena, cassiquiarensis, five polyphyletic macrodon groups, three polyphyletic ustus groups, sciureus, collinsi, boliviensis, peruviensis, vanzolinii, oerstedii and citrinellus. Four different phylogenetic trees showed the Central American squirrel monkey (S. oerstedii) as the most differentiated taxon. In contrast, albigena was indicated to be the most recent taxon. (2) There was extensive hybridization and/or historical introgression among albigena, different macrodon groups, peruviensis,sciureus and collinsi. (3) Different tests showed that our maximum likelihood tree was consistent with two species of Saimiri: S. oerstedii and S. sciureus. If no cases of hybridization were detected implicating S. vanzolinii, this could be a third recognized species. (4) We also estimated that the first temporal splits within this genus occurred around 1.4–1.6 million years ago, which indicates that the temporal split events within Saimiri were correlated with Pleistocene climatic changes. If the biological species concept is applied because, in this case, it is operative due to observed hybridization in the wild, the number of species within this genus is probably more limited than recently proposed by other authors. The Pleistocene was the fundamental epoch when the mitochondrial Saimiri diversification process occurred. © 2014, Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan.


Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Castillo M.I.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Vasquez C.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Rodriguez K.,Pontifical Xavierian University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

A total of 696 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial COII gene were sequenced from 118 individuals of Cebus albifrons (plus an individual of Cebus olivaceus) sampled from diverse geographical areas of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. These animals represented all of the C. albifrons's taxa described by Hershkovitz (1949) in Colombia and Peru (10 out of 13 subspecies are described by this author). The sequences analyzed demonstrate the existence of three well defined groups in northern Colombia (trans-Andean): malitosus, versicolor-pleei-cesarae and leucocephalus. They arose from at least, three distinct migrations from different Amazonian groups. Five different Amazonian and Eastern Llanos C. albifrons's groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) were also found. In many Amazonian localities, some of these groups live in sympatry probably by secondary expansion after their respective formations. Amazonian group I is closely related to the versicolor-pleei-cesarae group, malitosus is closely related to Amazonian group V, while leucocephalus is closely related to Amazonian group IV. Nevertheless, our genetic analysis could not resolve the genetic relationships among the main C. albifrons groups. The ρ-statistic applied to the median-joining network yielded that the major part of the temporal splits estimated occurred in the Pleistocene, reinforcing the importance of the Pleistocene refugia during the evolution of C. albifrons. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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